1400

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Henry Yeveley dies. 
Henry Yeveley, one of the greatest late medieval architects died in 1400. His work on Canterbury Cathedral was continued by his pupil Stephen Lote.

Chapter House at Canterbury building work 
Chapter House at Canterbury building work by Stephen Lote.

York Minster East Window 
Building work on the East Window of York Minster until 1405.

Tower built at Carlisle 
The tower and north transept at Carlisle were begun in 1400 and were completed in 1419.

Jan  -  A plot to kill the new King 
Supporters of Richard II planned to attack King Henry during a tournament held over Christmas at Windsor Castle. The plot was betrayed by Edward, Earl of Rutland, son of the Duke of York. Henry and his family escaped to London, and by the time the king returned to Windsor with an army, the rebels had been dealt with by local people.

Feb  -  Death of Richard II 
Richard II died some time between the 9th and 17th of February 1400 while being imprisoned at Pontefract Castle. The cause of his death is not known. He died at the age of 33.

Aug  -  Henry invades Scotland 
To stop the Scots raiding the northern borders of England Henry took an army into Scotland. The Scottish king Robert III did not concede defeat and Henry had to resort to minor raids of his own without any real outcome for either side.

Aug  -  Glendower's revolt starts 
What started as a land dispute between Owen Glendower, a wealthy land owner in Wales and his rival Lord Grey of Rutin quickly escalated to a revolt when the English King Henry IV sided with Rutin and awarded him the land.

Sep  -  Glendower proclaimed Prince of Wales 
Glendower's revolt spread and he proclaimed himself the Prince of Wales. He was joined by the Tudor brothers from Anglesey and began guerrilla warfare against the English in the North of Wales and the Marcher Lords in the centre.

Oct  -  Henry fights back against Glendower 
Henry IV moved into North Wales to try and stop the rebellion but he was not able to deal with the Welsh rebels who were more skilled at fighting in the terrain.

Oct 25  -  Death of Geoffrey Chaucer. 
Geoffrey Chaucer died.


1401

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Hotspur takes control in North Wales  
Henry IV gave his son Prince Henry, the future Henry V, the task of defeating Glendower in North Wales. As the boy was only 13 years old, Hotspur a knight and jouster of importance was given the role of guardian over the Prince. Hotspur was the son of Henry Percy the Earl of Northumberland.

De heretico comburendo 
The statute called De heretico comburendo was passed by Henry IV allowing heretics to be burnt at the stake. It was forbidden for anyone to translate the Bible into English and illegal to own a copy.

Mar  -  William Sawtrey is the first Lollard to be burned at the stake 
William Sawtrey was a follower of John Wycliffe.

Jun  -  Hotspur resigns 
After accusing the king of not paying his army, Hotspur resigned his guardianship of the king's son in North Wales and he left to resume fighting the Scots.

1402

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Henry IV assembles an army 
The king assembled an army at Shrewsbury Castle in preparation to fight Owen Glendower.

Mar  -  Death of David Stewart 
David, the eldest son of Robert III, King of Scotland, was arrested by his uncle, Robert the duke of Albany and locked up in Falkland Palace where he died in 1402. This led to James I becoming the next king of Scotland.

Jun 22  -  Battle of Pilleth 
Edmund Mortimer's army met Owen Glendower at Pilleth near Whitton in central Wales. Mortimer's army was badly defeated and Mortimer was captured. Glendower offered to release Mortimer for a large ransom, but Henry IV refused to pay.

Sep 14  -  Battle of Homildon Hill 
The armies of the Percies and the Scots met at Homildon Hill near Wooler in Northumberland. The Scots were defeated and the Scots' leader the Earl of Douglas was captured. Henry IV wanted Douglas handed over but Hotspur refused. Hotspur was angry with the English king who had refused to pay a ransom for Edmund Mortimer who had been captured by Owen Glendower and who was a friend of Hotspur's.

1403

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Revolt of the Percies 
The Percies, led by the Earl of Northumberland and Hotspur announced their intent to revolt against Henry IV. They even promised to free the Scots they had captured at the battle of Homildon if the Scots assisted in the revolt. The plan was to join forces with Owen Glendower and support the claim of the young Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl of March to the English throne.

Prince Henry in command 
Prince Henry, now sixteen, took control of this army in Wales. He took his troops looking for Owen Glendower but could not find him and so burnt villages and killed any prisoners that were taken. Henry's main problem, like Hotspur's before him was that the King was not providing enough money to pay the English troops.

Abergavenny attacked by Glendower 
The castle at Abergavenny was attacked and burnt by Owen Glendower.

Llansteffan Castle attacked by Glendower 
The Norman Llansteffan Castle was attacked by Owen Glendower. Glendower may have held the castle for a short time until it was retaken by Sir John Penress (Pennes).

Kidwelly Castle attacked 
Owen Glendower's forces attacked Kidwelly Castle managing to set fire to the unfinished gatehouse but did not capture the castle.

Weobley Castle attacked 
Owen Glendower attacked and badly damaged Weobley Castle.

Jul 21  -  Battle of Shrewsbury 
Henry IV managed to reach Shrewsbury just before Hotspur arrived and the rebel army had to camp outside the town to the north. The battle lasted all day but it ended when Hotspur was killed.

Aug  -  Earl of Northumberland surrenders 
Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland (Hotspur's father) had not managed to reach Shrewsbury in time to save his son. The Earl surrendered to the King, who accepted and showed the Earl mercy.

1404

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Worcester Cathedral north and south cloisters 
Work began on the north and south cloisters of Worcester Cathedral. Until 1432.

Harlech Castle siege 
The Welsh captured Harlech Castle and the fortress became the base for Owen's revolt.

Cardiff sacked by Glendower 
Owen Glendower attacked and captured the town of Cardiff and its castle.

Aberystwyth falls to the Welsh 
Owen Glendower captured the town of Aberystwyth and its castle after a lengthy blockade.

Bangor Cathedral burnt by rebels 
Bangor Cathedral was captured by Owen Glendower after a siege and destroyed by fire.

Innocent VII becomes Pope  (More...)
May  -  Glendower's Parliament 
Owen Glendower called a Parliament where he declared himself to be the true 'Prince of Wales'. Embassies from France and Scotland attended the meeting and gave promises to support Glendower's plans to overthrow Henry IV.

Sep 27  -  Death of William of Wykeham 
William of Wykeham the Bishop of Winchester died in this year. He was replaced by Henry Beaufort.

1405

Feb  -  Glendower's agreement 
Owen Glendower, Edmund Mortimer and the Earl of Northumberland combine forces and share the same goal of removing Henry IV. They agreed to divide England and Wales in three, Owen taking Wales and the west of England, the Earl to take the north of England and the north Midlands. Mortimer could have the rest.

Spring  -  Battles of Grosmont and Usk 
English forces fought and defeated Welsh forces in two battles at Grosmont and Usk. Sir John Talbot defeated Glendower at Grosmont and Prince Henry forced the Welsh to flee at Usk. Glendower's eldest son was captured at Usk and sent to the Tower of London where he died.

Apr  -  Scrope's revolt 
Richard Scrope colluded with the Earl of Northumberland to overthrow Henry IV. Scrope was the Archbishop of York.

May  -  Scrope executed 
The Archbishop's revolt was crushed with the aid of the Nevilles and the king had him executed.

Online Medieval Shield Designer
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1406

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Gregory XII becomes Pope  (More...)
Mar  -  James (I) captured by the English 
Robert III had fled from the Duke of Albany to Rothesay Castle and had attempted to send his son James to France. English pirates intercepted James and he was sent to London and imprisoned.

Apr  -  James I of Scotland 
With the death of Robert III, King of the Scots, James I was the new King of Scotland but as he was imprisoned by the English, his uncle Robert, Duke of Albany, acted as Regent until James' release in 1424.

Apr  -  Robert III dies 
Robert III, King of Scotland died at Rothesay Castle. His son James, although the rightful heir to the Scottish throne, was not crowned until 1424.

1407

Events occurring at some time during this year 
York Minster central tower 
Building work on the central tower of York Minster until 1423.

Prince Henry besieges Aberystwyth 
Prince Henry laid siege to the castle at Aberystwyth in an attempt to remove the Welsh who had captured it in 1404.

Harlech Castle siege 
The English besiege the Welsh in Harlech Castle.

1408

Feb  -  Battle of Bramham Moor 
The end of the Percy's revolt came at the battle of Bramham Moor where the Earl of Northumberland was killed by the Sheriff of Yorkshire.

Autumn  -  Aberystwyth falls to Henry 
The Welsh surrender the castle at Aberyswyth. They had held out for a year. Prince Henry had tried destroying the castle with canons but had no success.

Winter  -  Henry IV very ill 
The King's mysterious illness had resurfaced and he was extremely ill and close to death. Prince Henry was temporarily put in control of the country.

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1409

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Alexander V becomes Pope  (More...)
Mar  -  Harlech falls to the English 
The Welsh in Harlech Castle surrender to the English and the revolt of Welsh comes to an end. Edmund Mortimer was killed.

1410

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Founding of St. Andrews University. 
St. Andrews is the oldest university in Scotland.

John XXIII becomes Pope  (More...)

1411

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Construction of the Guildhall in London 
Located at the heart of the City of London, the Guildhall was built by the powerful merchants of London to rival the buildings of royalty. In the Guildhall the merchants held their courts and passed their laws and regulations.

Sep 21  -  Birth of Richard of York 
Richard, Duke of York, was born on the 21st of September. His father was Richard, Earl of Cambridge, and his mother was Anne Mortimer.

1412

Jan  -  Joan of Arc born 
Joan is born at Domremy.

1413

Mar 20  -  Henry IV dies 
Henry IV died in the Palace of Westminster. The mysterious disease he had suffered from for many years had taken its toll. Prince Henry accepted the crown and claimed it. The Earl of March now old enough to rule still had a very good claim of his own.

Apr 9  -  Henry V crowned 
Henry V was crowned at Westminster Abbey. The ceremony was marked by a very bad snow storm but people were unable to decide if this was a bad omen or a good one.

Autumn  -  Sir John Oldcastle arrested 
As the leader of the Lollards, the friend of the King was arrested and sent to the Tower of London.

Dec  -  Richard II's body moved 
In an act of respect to Richard II, Henry had the dead king's body moved to its proper resting place in Westminster Abbey.

1414

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Alien Priories confiscated 
Alien priories were those in England who were dependant on usually French mother houses. During the Hundred Years War these priories were seen as a security risk. They also were a means of transferring much needed English money to France. A law was passed confiscating these priories. Many were transferred over to other religious orders.

Jan 9  -  Lollards arrested 
A meeting of the Lollards was stormed by the King's troops and many were arrested and subsequently put to death. Their leader, Sir John Oldcastle, managed to escape capture.

Apr  -  Parliament at Leicester 
Parliament agreed to give Henry V the money to invade France. Those that opposed the plans included Earl Marshal, Ralph Neville, who believed there was a better chance of subduing Scotland than France.

Summer  -  Henry claims French territories 
France was in the midst of a civil war between the Burgundians and the Armagnacs. Charles VI, the king of France, had joined the Armagnacs. Henry came in on the side of the Burgundians and saw the opportunity to reclaim lost lands in France. Henry's plan was to invade France but he needed a good reason. He gave the French king a list of demands including the French throne, the restoration of the Angevin empire and the hand of the king's daughter in marriage. If the demands could not be met Henry could go to war.

1415

Spring  -  Preparations for war with France 
As negotiations were underway in France, England was preparing for the invasion of France.

Aug 1  -  Plot to overthrow the King 
Led by Richard Earl of Cambridge, Henry's cousin, a plot to assassinate the King and replace him with the Earl of March who was the true heir to the throne was hatched. The revolt brought together all the old enemies of Henry including Lord Scrope (Archbishop Scrope's nephew) and the Lollards. The Earl of March whose loyalties were with the king informed Henry of the plot the night before and the rebels were arrested. Several were executed.

Aug 11  -  Henry sails for France 
Preparations for war were complete and Henry's army set sail from Southampton for the French coast.

Aug 16  -  English fleets lands in Normandy 
Henry's army landed on the north bank of the Seine estuary near to the town of Harfleur (now part of Le Havre). Henry organised the siege of the town and waited for it to fall.

Sep 22  -  Harfleur falls to the English 
The town held out for five weeks in which time the English soldiers were starting to suffer from disease caught from their camps in the marshes. The people in the town were not doing much better and when it was clear that the town was not going to be rescued, the citizens surrendered. Henry treated the towns people with respect and let them leave.

Oct 8  -  The march to Calais 
Henry's plans for invading France had been dented by the time it took to capture Harfleur and the affect of disease on his men. He decided to move his men to Calais which was under English control.

Oct 19  -  Henry crosses the Somme 
Henry's plan was to get across the Somme at its estuary where it was relatively easy to cross but he received word that the crossing was being guarded by the French. Henry had no other choice but to follow the west bank of the Somme south into French territory to find a suitable crossing point. His men were short of food as Henry had told them to take only a few day's supplies expecting them to reach Calais. Henry finally found a crossing point that was unguarded and his army crossed the Somme.

Oct 25  -  The Battle of Agincourt 
The English army met the French army near the town of Agincourt. Although the English were outnumbered three to one, Henry used the local terrain to his advantage. The French cavalry were hit heavily by the English archers and French knights got bogged down in the wet fields. The French were defeated and Henry ordered that no prisoners should be taken apart from the extremely important knights who could be ransomed. The death toll amongst the French nobility was high.

Nov  -  Henry returns to England 
After a few weeks recovering in Calais from their ordeal, Henry and the English army returned to England to a hero's welcome.

1416

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Armagnac Fleet blockade Harfleur 
A French fleet laid siege to Harfleur, the French port captured by Henry V, and attempted to get it back. Harfleur was defended by Thomas Beaufort, the earl of Exeter.

Katla Volcano Eruption 
Eruption of the large Icelandic volcano.

Aug 15  -  Harfleur rescued 
An English fleet commanded by John Duke of Bedford attacked and defeated the French blockading the mouth of the Seine who were preventing supplies reaching the English held town of Harfleur. Bedford was the king's brother.

1417

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Martin V becomes Pope  (More...)
Aug  -  Henry V lands in Normandy 
King Henry began his second French campaign when he and his large army landed at Trouville on the north coast of Normandy.

Dec 14  -  Sir John Oldcastle executed 
Sir John Oldcastle executed.


1419

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Henry the Navigator starts sea exploration 
Henry, the Navigator, was a Portuguese prince who set up a school for sea exploration when he became governor of an area in the south of Portugal. His time as governor is seen a s the start of Portugal's important sea exploration tradition.

Jan 19  -  Rouen surrenders to Henry  
The city of Rouen in Normandy surrendered to the English King after a siege of seven months.

1420

May 21  -  Treaty of Troyes 
Henry V pledged to recover all the lands of the dauphin Charles and (24.5) Henry recognised as heir to the French throne.


Jun 2  -  Henry marries 
The marriage of Henry and Catherine the daughter of Charles VI king of France sealed the Treaty of Troyes.

1421

Feb 23  -  Queen Catherine crowned 
Queen Catherine was crowned at Westminster Abbey.

Oct 6  -  Siege of Meaux begins 
King Henry began the siege of the city of Meaux.

Dec 6  -  Birth of Henry (VI) 
Prince Henry (later Henry VI) was born at Windsor.

1422

May  -  Meaux falls to the English 
The French town of Meaux finally fell to the English besiegers. This being Henry's last great victory against the French.

Aug 31  -  Henry V dies 
Henry had fallen ill during the previous winter and had not recovered during the spring and summer. He died at the age of 34 in Bios de Vincennes in France on August 31st and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Sep 1  -  Henry VI becomes king 
Henry VI became king of England upon the death of his father. Henry was less than one year old when his father died and so England was governed by a number of protectors. These included Henry V's brothers, John Duke of Bedford and Humphrey Duke of Gloucester, along with Henry Beaufort the bishop of Winchester.

Oct 21  -  Charles VI of France dies 
Charles VI of France died and was buried in the Saint Denis Basilica. Henry VI of England was proclaimed king of France and John Duke of Bedford was appointed regent.

1423

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Canterbury South West Tower building work 
Canterbury South West Tower building work by Thomas Mapilton.

Battle of Cravant in France 
English defeat the French at Cravant

Clement VIII becomes the Antipope  (More...)
Dec  -  Treaty of London 
Treaty allowing James I, of Scotland to be freed from his prison where he had been for eighteen years and return to Scotland and become King.

1424

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Battle of Verneuil 
The English defeat the French at Verneuil

Mar 28  -  Treaty of Durham 
At the Treaty of Durham, James I of Scotland was released from his captivity allowing him to return to Scotland and claim the throne. Note: This appears to be the second treaty allowing his release, so need to understand why there were two,

May  -  James I crowned 
James I, King of Scotland was crowned at Scone Abbey.