Abbey: A monastic community. Abbeys belonged to particular orders, such as the Cistercians.
Abbot: (m.) Person in charge of an Abbey.
Benedictine: Order of monks founded by St. Benedict. Followed the Benedictine Rule.
Cell: A monastic dependency of a religious house.
Daughter House: Foundation of an abbey by monks from another abbey. Initial community consisted of 13 monks, one of which was the group leader.
Monk: A man who has taken vows and joined a religious community.
|Order Name||Founded||Mother House||Rule||No. Houses in England|
|Benedictine||c529||-||St. Benedict||more than 200|
|Cluniac||910||Cluny||St. Benedict||30 or 40|
|Carthusian||1084||Grande Chartreause||Carthusian Rule||9|
|Cistertian||1098||Citaux||St. Benedict||more than 100
(> 600 in total)
|Augustinian||-||-||St. Augustine||just less than 200|
|Premonstratensian||1121||Premontré||St. Augustine||approx. 35|
|Gilbertines||1131||Sempringham||St. Gilbert||approx. 25|
The Benedictines or Black Monks (Founded around 529)
The Benedictines otherwise known as the Black Monks were not an Order in the same respect as those detailed below. The Bendictine Order of monks founded by St. Benedict followed the Benedictine Rule. Benedictine abbeys and monasteries all followed the Rule of St. Benedict but they were all self contained and were not dependant on a mother house. Known originally as the Black Monks because they wore black cloaks they became known as Benedictines later on when new Orders began to appear to distingish them from the others.
The Cluniac Order (Founded 910)
The Cluniac Order was founded by a Benedictine monk called Odo who believed that the strict rule of St. Benedict was not being followed. He founded the abbey of Cluny in 910. In this order the daughter houses were all dependant on Cluny itself for their funds and any money the daughter house received had to be sent back to Cluny. When Cluny started using its funds to increase its own grandeur its daughter houses suffered and popularity of the order began to wane. Monks in this Order dedicated so much time to prayer that they had to employ workers to tend the fields and gardens. In England the order set up many proiries the first and most important was in Lewes in the south. Bermondsey, the second, was finally elevated to an Abbey in 1399. Other priories include those at Wenlock, Castle Acre, Lenton, Montacute and Thetford to name a few.
The Cluniac priories were classed as 'alien priories' which meant that they were dependant on a foreign mother house; in this case Cluny. During the Hundred Years War, when the English and French were fighting, these alien priories were seen as a security risk. To help avoid an invasion from France a restriction was put on the inhabitants of alien priories preventing them living within 13 miles of the coast. Alien priories sent the money raised in England back to France which was not popular. In 1414 the alien priories were confiscated by Henry V and the English Crown. Many were taken over by other religious orders.
The Carthusian Order (Founded 1084)
The Carthusians were founded in 1084 by Saint Bruno at Grande Chartreuse (or La Cartreause) and were descended from the Benedictines. In England their houses were known as Charter-houses. The Rule that these monks followed was possibly the most strict of all the orders. Being a Carthusian monk meant that the ideal of leaving the world behind when entering a monastery was taken literally. Each monk lived in solitude in a small cell where he did his own cooking and slept. He had a small area of garden in which to grow food and only meet his fellow monks once a week. As the life was so strict and the order did not communicate with the outside world the number of abbeys remained less than ten in number. Only two Carthusian houses were founded before the middle of the fourteenth century, those being Wilton and Nottinghamshire in around 1180 and Hinton and Somerset in around 1227.
The Cistercians (Founded 1098)
The first of the Cistercian Order were Benedictine monks at the abbey at Citeaux who were unhappy that the rule of St. Benedict was not being followed. Lead by Abbot Robert of Molesme the monks built a wooden >monastery and chose to live an extremely hard life. Robert was replaced first by Alberic and then, when he returned to the abbey at Molesme, by Stephen Harding. Stephen Harding was an Englishman born at Sherborne in Dorset and one of the original founding monks. Before Stephen died he had transformed a very poor monastery into the centre of one of the most powerful monastic Orders of the time.
Although already popular, the success of the Cistercians was to increase with the arrival of Bernard of Fontaines who joined the order in 1112. St. Bernard of Clairvaux, as he is now known, was very persuasive. He became the Abbot of Clairvaux in 1115. By the time that Bernard died in 1153 there were up to 340 Cistercian abbeys in Europe. From Citeaux the Cistercians spread across France and then in 1128 moved across the Channel to create its first abbey in Britain at Waverley in Surrey. During the period of civil war (1135 - 1153) between King Stephen and Matilda, the daughter of Henry I, known as the anarchy the Cistercians greatly increased their presence in Britain.
In general the Cistercians built their monasteries in remote places far from civilisation and refused to accept donations apart from the land on which they built.
All Cistercian abbeys were descended from the mother church at Citeaux, but unlike Cluny and the Cluniac Order, the Cistercian daughter houses were more independent and were administered by their own abbots. There were far too many daughter houses for Citeaux to administer alone. For a diagram showing the relationship between the abbeys click here: -
The Augustinians were not monks like the Benedictines or Cistercians but were canons. Canons were priests who lived in communities such as Cathedrals or collegiate churches. These canons were not bound by the strict rules like the monks but followed the rule of St. Augustine. St. Augustine was a bishop at Hippo, a city in Algeria, northern Africa. Here in around the year 400 A.D. he wrote many books on many subjects. One of these books gave directions on how a monastic community should be run and this was the basis for the Augustinians rule. The Augustinian canons wore black robes and were known as the Black Canons.
Gilbertines (Founded 1131)
The Gilbertine order was founded in England at Sempringham in Lincolnshire by St. Gilbert who is also known as Gilbert of Sempringham. The order allowed both men (regular canons) and women (nuns) to join its ranks. Several daughter houses were created mainly in the north-east and east of England but the number was small compared to the larger Cistercian order. When the order ran into funding problems Gilbert approached the Cistercian order for help but was refused because of the women. King Henry II gave the order the right not to pay taxes to help it survive.
Orders of Friars
Like monks, friars took the usual vows associated with religious orders, but unlike monks, friars travelled around the country and preached to those who would not normally be reached by other means. While they travelled they stayed at houses belonging to the order that were located in the towns they visited.
Dominican Friars (Founded 1216)
The Dominican Order was founded in 1216 by St. Dominic. An important aspect of this Order is that of learning and several houses were founded in cities with links to universities. A Dominican house was founded in Oxford in 1221.