ancred was the nephew of Bohemund of Taranto and a leader of a Norman army from southern Italy and Sicily who joined the First Crusade. When Bohemund was captured in 1100 and held prisoner for several years Tancred became regent of Antioch.
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Tewdwr, Rhys ap

Died: 1093

hys ap Tewdwr was the ruler of Deheubarth, the area of south west Wales, at the time of the Norman invasion. An agreement with William the Conqueror enabled Rhys to remain in control of the region. After William's death Rhys' power came under attack both from within Wales and from the Normans. After Rhys was killed in 1093 the Normans took the opportunity to invade the region. His son was Gruffydd ap Rhys and his grandson was Rhys ap Gruffydd, known as The Lord Rhys.
1081   William tours south Wales
 William the Conqueror visited South Wales and St. David's. He met Rhys ap Tewdwr, the ruler of the area and allowed him to remain in control of the region for a yearly sum of money.

Episode: Norman Conquest  

Theobald (of Bec, Archbishop of Canterbury)

Died: Apr 1161

lected Archbishop of Canterbury in 1138. Theobald sided against King Stephen who had himself planned to become Archbishop. In 1152 Theobald refused to crown Stephen's son Eustace and in 1154 crowned Henry II and Eleanor at Westminster.
1138   Theobald becomes Archbishop
 Theobald is elected as Archbishop of Canterbury. 
1152 Apr 6  Theobald refuses to crown Eustace
 King Stephen had several lords swear to have Eustace, his son, as the next king of England. Theobald the Archbishop of Canterbury, who had to accept as well, refused to crown Eustace favouring Henry II's claim to the throne instead.

Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda  
1161 Apr 18  Death of Theobald of Bec
 Theobald of Bec, archbishop of Canterbury, died after an illness. Henry II was informed and wanted his friend Thomas Becket elected as archbishop.

Episode: Henry II and Thomas Becket  

Theobald (V)

irst son of Stephen, count of Blois and Adela, daughter of William the Conqueror. His brother Stephen became king of England.
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Thomas (Duke of Clarence)

Died: 1421

Family Tree Details
Father: Henry (IV, King of England 1399-1413) (b.1367 - d.1413)
Mother: Bohun, Mary
Thomas (Duke of Clarence) ( - d.1421)

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Thomas (Earl of Lancaster)

Born: circa 1278 Executed: 1322

on of Edmund Earl of Lancaster and cousin of Edward II king of England, Thomas became one of the most powerful Lords of the time. As one of the leaders of the Lord Ordainers he attempted to limit the powers of the King and to remove Gaveston the King's favourite. Thomas was captured and executed as a traitor. The Earl was the son of King Edward I's brother Edmund and Blanche of Artois and had the earldoms of Lancaster, Leicster and Derby. His wealth was much more than that of other nobles and this allowed the Earl to become extremely powerful.

Family Tree Details
Father: Edmund (Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster) (b.1245 - d.1296)
Mother: Blanche (of Artois)
Thomas (Earl of Lancaster) (b.1278 - ex.1322)

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1308 May 9  Thomas Earl of Lancaster
 King Edward granted his cousin Thomas Earl of Lancaster and his heirs the title of Stewardship of England. Many barons were opposing the King beacuse of his closness to Gaveston and Edward needed some support. This may have been a way of getting Lancaster on his side.

Episode: Edward II and Piers Gaveston  
1311   Lancaster's marriage provides more power
 The marriage of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster to Alice de Lacy, the heiress of the of the powerful Henry de Lacy, gave the Earl even more titles and properties. One of these properties was Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire. 
 Qtr 1  The rise of Thomas Earl of Lancaster
 While Edward II was in Scotland, his Regent, the Earl of Lincoln died. and was replaced by his son-in-law Thomas, Earl of Lancaster. Lancaster became the Earl of Lincoln and Salisbury, but already held the titles of Earl of Leicester and Derby. Holding so many titles, made Lancaster the most powerful Baron of the time. His hatred of Gaveston was to become a major problem for the king.[1]

Episode: Edward II and Piers Gaveston  
 Qtr 1  Lancaster pays homage
 Lancaster had to pay homage to the king for the new lands he had received with his new earldoms. Edward was in Scotland but Lancaster refused to leave England and Edward met Lancaster at Haggerston Castle on the border. Gaveston was with the king but Lancaster refused to meet him.[1]

Episode: Edward II and Piers Gaveston  
1312 May 4  Edward and Gaveston flee
 Edward and Gaveston were at Newcastle when they were alerted to the news that the Earl of Lancaster was heading for them. They escaped down river toTynemouth where the King and Gaveston took a boat to Scarborough leaving behind them everything and everybody including Isabella, Edward's wife. Gaveston took refuge at Scarborough Castle and Edward went to York.[2]

Episode: Edward II and Piers Gaveston  
 May 19  Gaveston surrenders
 While the Earl of Lancaster set up camp midway between York and Scarborough to prevent Gaveston and the King rejoining, the Earls of Pembroke and Surrey besieged Scarborough castle. The castle was not prepared to withstand the stand-off and Gaveston surrendered after a couple of weeks. The terms of his surrender were generous and Pembroke gave his word that Gaveston would not be harmed until he was presented to Parliament.[1]

Episode: Edward II and Piers Gaveston  
 Jun 19  Gaveston executed
 The Earl of Pembroke with his captive Gaveston, stopped at Deddington for the night. Pembroke left Gaveston to attend to other matters. The Earl of Warwick took advantage of Pembroke's absence and took Gaveston from his bed. They went to Warwick Castle and Gaveston was thrown in the dungeon. The four Earls, Lancaster, Warwick, Arundel and Hereford took the decision that Gaveston should be punished and took him to Blacklow Hill where he was executed. As Gaveston was under excommunication, the body was not buried straight away.[3]

Episode: Edward II and Piers Gaveston  
1313   Construction of Dunstanburgh Castle
 Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, started the construction of a castle at Dunstanburgh on the Northumbrian coast. 
1314 Sep  Edward loses power to Lancaster
 After the defeat at Bannockburn, the death of Gloucester and his army scattered, Edward had to hand power over to the Earl of Lancaster and the Lords Ordainers. Lancaster had kept back his own personal army in readiness for Edward's return and Edward had no option. Lancaster then replaced the Edward's supporters in key seats of power with his own Lancastrian supporters.[1] 
1315   Lancaster in power
 For the whole of 1315 Thomas, the Earl of Lancaster was in control of England and he embarked on a campaign to create a network of supporters in all positions of power. It seems that every section of society had Lancastrians that he could depend on. [1] 
1318 Aug 9  Treaty of Leake
 The Earl of Pembroke and his 'Middle Party' held discussions with the Earl of Lancaster during which it was agreed that a council should be formed that would advise the King, and that the King should not be able to act without the council's advice. Lancaster was also assured that he and his followers would be pardoned for any illegal acts that they may have performed during the time of their power. Lancaster agreed to the Treaty and met Edward to reconcile their differences.[1] 
1319 Jun  Edward marches to free Berwick
 The last Scottish town to be held in English hands had been captured by Robert the Bruce. The loss of Berwick brought Edward and Lancaster together. Their common goal was to recapture the town and together with the Earl of Pembroke and Surrey they marched north.[1]

Episode: Robert the Bruce  
1321 Qtr 1  Despenser and the Marcher Lords
 Hugh Despenser began obtaining lands in South Wales. He did this by exchanging estates he held in England and by obtaining grants from the king. He even obtained the Isle of Lundy. When the last male heir of the Marcher Lord Braose family died, Despenser was able to obtain the land that the family owned in and around Swansea. This angered the other Marcher Lords as they had customs that allowed land to pass into the hands of one another. The Marcher Lords threatened to start a civil war and it was agreed that a Parliament should be called to settle the matter. It was also agreed that Despenser was to be held in custody by Lancaster until the meeting but Despenser refused. 
 May 24  Meeting at Pontefract
 Lancester held the first of two meetings to gather support of Barons and the clergy to remove the Despensers from power. The second meeting at Sherborn-in-Elmet near York was held on June 28th.[1] 
 Jul  Parliament at Westminster
 Lancaster put a large amount of pressure on Edward to remove the Despensers from power. The Marcher Lords brought a force to London and threats were made that Edward would be removed from the throne if he did not comply.[1] 
1322 Mar 16  Battle of Boroughbridge
 Lancaster left his base at Pontract and headed north. At the bridge crossing the river Ure at Boroughbridge he was halted by an army led by Andrew Harcley, the Earl of Carlisle. Harcley held the bridge against Lancaster's attacks and Lancaster was forced to surrender. Lancaster was taken back to Pontefract Castle where Edward had taken control. 
 Mar 22  Lancaster Executed
 Edward finally had his revenge for the death of Gaveston when Thomas, the Earl of Lancaster, was executed outside the walls of Pontefract Castle.[1] 

Thomas (Earl of Norfolk)

Died: 1338

on of Edward I and his second wife Margaret.

Family Tree Details
Father: Edward (I, King of England 1272-1307) (b.1239 - d.1307)
Mother: Margaret (of France) ( - d.1317)
Thomas (Earl of Norfolk) ( - d.1338)

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Thomas (of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester)

Died: 1397

Family Tree Details
Father: Edward (III, King of England 1327-1377) (b.1312 - d.1377)
Mother: Philippa (of Hainault) (b.1314 - d.1369)
Thomas (of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester) ( - d.1397)

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1355 Jan 7  Birth of Thomas of Woodstock
 Thomas of Woodstock was born to Philippa and Edward III. 

Trygvasson, Olaf

991 - 993 Vikings attack the wealthy south-east
 Under the leadership of Olaf Trygvasson the Vikings attacked the wealthy south-east coast of England and took as much riches as they could carry.[4]

Episode: Viking Invasions  
   Battle of Malden
 The raiding Vikings attacked the Ipswich area of England before sailing into the Blackwater river estuary near Malden. The English were waiting for them and trapped the Vikings in rising tidal waters. The English fought bravely and a poem was written about their exploits but in the end the Vikings were victorious and the English were defeated.

Episode: Viking Invasions  
   Vikings paid to leave England with land tax
 Aethelred was advised by Archbishop Sigeric to talk to Olaf and arrange a truce rather than trying to defeat the Vikings in battle. The Vikings accepted a large payoff and left. The sum of money was around 10,000 pounds and was raised by collecting and land tax known as Danegeld.[5]

Episode: Viking Invasions  
994   Swein Fork-Beard invades Britain
 Swein Fork-Beard had overthrone this father King Harold Blue-Tooth Gormsson, King of Denmark in 988. With a huge fleet of 94 ships he arrived in the Thames estuary with Olaf Trygvasson by his side. London put up a good defence and drove the Vikings back so Fork-Beard moved his forces again to attack the south-east coast to plunder what he could find.[4]

Episode: Viking Invasions  
 Winter  Trygvasson converted to Christianity
 Through the Winter months Aethelred provided the Vikings with lodgings and £16,000 in cash to stop the raids on his land. Aethelred was also the sponsor at the baptism of Olaf Trygvasson. Olaf was given instruction from the Bishop of Winchester.[4]

Episode: Viking Invasions  
995   Olaf Tryggvason becomes King of Norway
 Olaf was in England when he was approached by a messanger from Norway asking him to return amd overthrow Earl Hakon who was ruling the country as a tyrannt. Olaf returned and joined the rebels against the Earl who had gone into hiding. Hakon was killed and Olaf became King of Norway.[6] 

Tuchet, James (5th Baron Audley)

Died: 23 Sep 1459

ames Tuchet (Lord Audley) was a Lancastrian supporter and fought during the early part of the Wars of the Roses. In 1459 the Yorkists in the north mobilised an army and headed south to meet the Duke of York at Ludlow. Richard Neville, the Earl of Salisbury was intercepted by a Lancastrian army led by Lord Audley at Blore Heath in Shropshire. The Lancastrian first and second cavalry charges were repulsed and when the Lancastrian foot soldiers were also repulsed they turned and fled. In the battle Lord Audley was killed.The Yorkists had won this battle.
1459 Sep 23  Battle of Blore Heath
 Led by Richard Earl of Salisbury the Yorkists in the north mobilised an army and headed south to meet the Duke of York at Ludlow. Salisbury was intercepted by a Lancastrian army led by Lord Audley at Blore Heath in Shropshire. The Lancastrians were the first to attack. Their first and second cavalry charges were repulsed and when the Lancastrian foot soldiers were also repulsed they turned and fled. In the battle Audley was killed and although two of Salisbury's sons were captured they were quickly released. The Yorkists had won this battle.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  

Tudor, Edmund (Earl of Richmond)

Died: 1456

dmund was the son of Owen Tudor, a Welsh landowner, and Catherine of France, the wife of Henry V. Edmund married into the Beaufort family and their son became Henry VII, the first Tudor king.

Family Tree Details
Father: Tudor, Owen (b.1400 - d.1461)
Mother: Catherine (of France) ( - d.1438)
Tudor, Edmund (Earl of Richmond) ( - d.1456)
+Beaufort, Lady Margaret (b.1443 - d.1509) =Henry (VII, King of England 1485-1509) (b.1457 - d.1509) +Elizabeth (of York) ( - d.1503) =Arthur (Prince of Wales) (b.1486 - d.1502) | +Catherine (of Aragon) (b.1485 - d.1536) =Margaret (Tudor, Daughter of Henry VII) (b.1489 - d.1541) | +James (IV King of Scotland 1488-1513) (b.1473 - d.1513) | | =James (V, King of Scotland 1513-1542) (b.1512 - d.1542) | | +Mary (of Guise) ( - d.1560) | | | =Mary (Stuart, Queen of Scotland) (b.1542 - d.1587) | | +Erskine, Margaret (Lady) | | =Stewart, James (1st Earl of Moray) (b.1531 - m.1570) | +Douglas, Archibald (Earl of Angus) ( - d.1557) | =Douglas, Margaret ( - d.1578) | +Stewart, Matthew (Earl of Lennox) ( - d.1571) | =Henry (Lord Darnley) (b.1546 - d.1567) | =Stewart, Charles (Earl of Lennox) ( - d.1576) =Henry (VIII, King of England 1509-1547) (b.1491 - d.1547) | +Catherine (of Aragon) (b.1485 - d.1536) | | =Mary (I, Queen of England 1553-1558, Bloody Mary, Mary Tudor) (b.1516 - d.1558) | | +Philip (II, King of Spain 1556-1598) (b.1527 - d.1598) | +Boleyn, Anne ( - ex.1536) | | =Elizabeth (I, Queen of England 1558-1603) (b.1533 - d.1603) | +Seymour, Jane ( - d.1537) | | =Edward (VI, King of England 1547-1553) (b.1537 - d.1553) | +Anne (of Cleves) (b.1515 - d.1557) | +Howard, Catherine ( - ex.1542) | +Parr, Catherine =Mary (Tudor, Queen of France) (b.1495 - d.1533) +Louis (XII, King of France) ( - d.1515) +Brandon, Charles (Duke of Suffolk) (b.1485 - d.1545) =Frances (Lady) | +Grey, Henry (Duke of Suffolk) ( - ex.1554) | =Grey, Jane (Lady) (b.1537 - ex.1554) | =Grey, Catherine (Lady) =Clifford, Eleanor (Lady) ( - d.1547)

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1452 Nov  Edmund and Jasper created Earls
 The two sons of Owen Tudor, Edmund and Jasper were made Earls. Edmund became the Earl of Richmond and Jasper became the Earl of Pembroke. 
1455   Edmund Tudor marries Margaret Beaufort
 Edmund Tudor married Margaret Beaufort, the heiress of the Duke of Somerset. Margaret was only twelve years old.[7] 
1456 Summer  Edmund Tudor captured
 Edmund Tudor Earl of Richmond is captured.[8] 
 Nov  Edmund Tudor dies
 Edmund the Earl of Richmond died in captivity in Carmarthen Castle. His thirteen year old bride Margaret was expecting their child who would become the future King Henry VII. 
1457 Jan 28  Henry (VII) is born
 The future king of England, Henry VII, was born at Pembroke Castle. His father was Edmund Tudor who had died a couple of months before the birth and his mother was Margaret Beaufort who was directly descended from Edward III. 

Tudor, Jasper (Earl of Pembroke)

Born: circa 1431 Died: 1496

asper Tudor was the second son of Owen Tudor and Catherine of Valois. Catherine had been married to King Henry V of England, but after the King's death she married Owen Tudor, one of her Welsh servants. Owen and Catherine had several children and they and the marriage were kept a secret. In 1452, when the secret was revealed after Catherine's death the sons were taken to the court of Henry VI, their half-brother, and given titles. Edmund, Japser's elder brother, was given the title of Earl of Richmond, and Jasper was made Earl of Pembroke. In 1455 Edmund married the young Margaret Beaufort who was descended though the Lancastrian line from Edward III. When This was the period of history known as the Wars of the Roses between two sets of descendants of Edward III who fought for the English throne. Edmund was captured by the Yorkists and died in captivity in 1456. Jasper took Edmund's wife Margaret who was expecting their first child to Pembroke Castle for safety. It was at Pembroke Castle that Margaret's child, Henry, was born. Henry would become Henry VII, King of England.

Family Tree Details
Father: Tudor, Owen (b.1400 - d.1461)
Mother: Catherine (of France) ( - d.1438)
Tudor, Jasper (Earl of Pembroke) (b.1431 - d.1496)

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1452 Nov  Edmund and Jasper created Earls
 The two sons of Owen Tudor, Edmund and Jasper were made Earls. Edmund became the Earl of Richmond and Jasper became the Earl of Pembroke. 
1456 Dec  Margaret Beaufort moved to Pembroke
 After the death of Edmund Tudor his brother Jasper Tudor Earl of Pembroke moved Margaret Beaufort to Pembroke Castle. Margaret was the wife of Edmund and expecting their first child.[8] 
1468 Jul  Jasper Tudor's invasion
 King Louis provider Jasper Tudor, the Earl of Pembroke, with three ships and fifty soldiers to invade Wales. The small invasion force planned to gain support against Edward IV and help the Lancastrian garrison trapped at Harlech Castle. The castle was surrounded by the English so Pembroke attacked and occupied Denbigh gaining many supporters. Lord Herbert was dispatched to deal with the threat and defeated Pembroke who managed to escape.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  

Tyler, Wat

eader of the Peasant's Revolt (1381).
1381 Jun 7  Peasant's Revolt reaches Maidstone
 The Kentish section of the Revolt reached Maidstone where they were joined by Wat Tyler who became their leader. They released John Ball from the church prison.[9]

Episode: Peasants Revolt  
 Jun 10  Peasant's Revolt reaches Canterbury
 William Courtenay was elected the new archbishop of Canterbury by the Kentish rebels who crowded into the church. The previous archbishop was in London with the king and was to be beheaded by the rebels. The Essex section of the revolt burnt and sacked a Hospitaller commandery that had previously belonged to the Templars called Cressing Temple.[9]

Episode: Peasants Revolt  
 Jun 15  Watt Tyler killed
 Richard II again met the rebels, at Smithfield; they demanded the confiscation of church land; Watt Tyler was killed and the rebels dispersed; the Prior of Bury St.Edmunds was executed by the townspeople; University property was attacked in Cambridge (-17.6).

Episode: Peasants Revolt