The combined Danish army left Shoebury and marched west up the Thames valley through Worcestershire and up the Severn valley finally reaching Chester where they were besieged by the Saxons who tried to starve the Danes out. The Danes managed to escape into Wales where they raided and left with a great deal of spoils.
Oswald founded a Benedictine monastery at Worcester dedicated to St. Mary the Virgin. Oswald became bishop of Worcester upon the recommendation of Dunstan.
In this year tax collectors arrived in Worcester to collect money in order to pay the Danes to stop attacking the country. The citizens of Worcester refused to pay and the tax collectors had to seek refuge. But before they could find safety they were murdered by the mob. In response, the king Harthacanute, sent an army to deal with the rioters.
When the army sent by Harthacanute arrived at Worcester they found that the city had been abandoned. The people of Worcester fearing the army had taken refuge on an island in the River Severn called Bevere Island. The army ransacked the city and left it burning before approching the island. The army was warmly welcomed by the people of the island and no further action was taken.
Aldred, bishop of Worcester refounded a monastery at Gloucester. A monastery had already been founded at Gloucester in 681 by Ostric.
A large earthquake was felt in Worcester and Derby and many people were reportedly killed.
Wulfstan, a monk at Worcester Cathedral from 1040, was recommended for the position of bishop by visiting papal legates.
A rebellion led by Roger, Earl of Hereford, against King William was halted at Worcester by Bishop Wulfstan and Walter de Lacy whose army prevented the rebels crossing the River Severn.
Building work starts on Worcester Cathedral. Orchestrated by Bishop Wulfstan. (More Information to follow)
Many Norman barons held land both in England and Normandy. With two opposing lords, William in England and Robert in Normandy, the barons were finding it difficult to know who to support. A revolt led by Odo sprung up in England with the aim of removing William from the throne. Odo's revolt in Kent and Sussex was supported by barons across the country. Roger Bigod from Norwich and Geoffrey of Coutances and Robert Mowbray from Bristol supported Odo. In Worcestershire Roger de Lacy captured Hereford and attacked Worcester. In the south-east Roger Montgomery at Arundel Robert of Mortain at Pevensey and Gilbert de Clare at Tonbridge also prepared to fight the King. Robert of Belleme, a Norman baron, who was able to bring support from Normandy. Robert also controlled castles in the Welsh Marches where the revolt also took place.
The Worcestershire rebellion led by Robert of Lacy was dealt with quickly by Wulfstan, the Bishop of Worcester, who called on those knights and local landowners still loyal to the King to defend Worcester. Many of the rebels were captured or killed.
Wulfstan was bishop of Worcester. The location of his grave is not known.
The abbey church at Gloucester built by Abbot Serlo was dedicated by Samson the Bishop of Worcester, Gundulph the Bishop of Rochester and Harvey Bishop of Bangor.
The city of Worcester, its cathedral and castle were damaged by an accidental fire.
Work began on the chapter-house of Worcester Cathedral.
The city of Worcester was attacked by forces supporting Matilda (Empress Maude). The citizens of the city moved their posessions into the cathedral for safe keeping. The attackers failed to gain access from the south but managed to enter the city from the north. Parts of the city were ransacked and burnt.
The Augustinian Abbey at Bristol founded by Robert Fitzharding was consecrated on Easter day in the presence of the Bishops of Worcester, Exeter, St. Asaph and Llandaff.
King Stephen besieged then plundered the city of Worcester but was unable to capture the castle due to its strong defences. He expelled the Lord of the city William de Beauchamp. Stephen built two forts near the castle to assist in the attack. One was on Red Hill near Digly and the other was at Henwicks Hill.
Hugh Mortimer fortified the city of Worcester against King Henry II, but as the king'a army approached he submitted and was pardoned.
At Easter King Henry II, and his wife Eleanor, visited Worcester Cathedral and placed their crowns on the shrine of Wulfstan, vowing not to wear them again.
The devastating fire in this year caused so much damage to the cathedral that the building needed to be rebuilt.
King John visited Worcester and gave funds for the rebuilding of the Cathedral after the devastating fire.
King John's wishes were to be buried at the church at Worcester.This was done and King John's body was placed in a tomb at the centre of the Cathedral.
A peace treaty signed by King Henry III of England and the Welsh ruler Llywelyn the Great at Worcester confirmed Llywelyn's ownership of lands in Wales.
Robert Ferrers, the earl of Derby, along with Simon de Montfort's son laid siege to the city of Worcester. The attackers finally entered the city and were allowed to sack the city. The Jewish community was targeted by the attackers.
Simon's son was sent to London to raise money and troops. He diverted back through Winchester which was loyal to the king and then moved through Oxford and Northampton. Edward (I) moved from Worcester to Bridgnorth destroying bridges and means of allowing Simon who was on the Welsh side of the Avon from crossing back. The people of Bristol, friendly to Simon's cause sent ships to Newport to help Simon cross, but they were intercepted and destroyed by Edward.
Joined by a force of some 800 cavalry and 2500 infantry at Worcester, King Edward I moved north to Chester. Edward's forces then proceeded to move along the north coast of Wales. His advance was impeded by dense forest which offered the Welsh good opportunities to launch surprise attacks on the English troops. Edward built a wide road through the forests building fortified posts along the way. The force of soldiers were on a forty-days service agreement and after that some returned home. Edward retained some by paying them extra for their services.
With peace between Edward and Llywelyn, the marriage between Llywelyn and Eleanor de Montfort was allowed to continue. The marriage took place at Worcester and was attended by Edward.
At Worcester Cathedral work progressed on the vaults of the nave and crossing, the west front, north porch and east cloister until 1395. The work was desiged by the master mason John Clyve.
Construction work began on the north and south cloisters of Worcester Cathedral and continued until 1432.
Royalists led by Prince Rupert defeated a Parliamentarian force emerging from Powick Bridge that crossed the River Teme near Worcester. The Royalists attacked before the Parliamentarians had time to organise themselves, driving them back across the bridge. Prince Rupert's reputation as a formidable commander was made at this engagement.
Prince Maurice, younger brother of Prince Rupert, defeated Sir William Waller at Ripple Field near Worcester.
William Waller and the Earl of Essex were advancing on Oxford where the King was staying. The King had to remove his men from Reading and Abingdon so that an army could be raised to meet the threat. The King left Oxford leaving a garrison to protect the city and fled to Worcester. Essex ignored the King and took his army south where Lyme Regis was under attack. Waller was left to pursue the King.
Selection of references used:
Explore the White Tower
Explore all four floors of the White Tower at the Tower of London using the Unity 3d game engine.
A Medieval Mystery
There appear to be some strange connections between the fourteenth century Old Wardour Castle and ancient stone circle Stonehenge.
Old Wardour Castle appears to be aligned to ancient sites in the Stonehenge landscape.
Stonehenge is aligned to the Summer Solstice. Old Wardour has a very similar alignment.
Could the builders of Old Wardour used mesaurements from Stonehenge to layout the geometrical keep?