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Catherine (of France)
Died: 3 Jan 1438
The marriage of Henry and Catherine the daughter of Charles VI king of France sealed the Treaty of Troyes.
It is believed that Owen Tudor and Catherine were secretly married in this year or just before.
Catherine died in this year after retiring to Bermondsey Abbey. Some reports say she died whilst giving birth, but this is probably wrong.
After the death of Catherine of France Owen Tudor was summonsed by Henry VI. Owen was unsure of Henry's motives and wanted some guarantee that he would be able to leave unharmed. That guarantee was given and Owen went to London. Still cautious, Owen used the safety of Westminster to investigate the King's reasons for his summons and when he was relatively happy visited the King. Owen was charged with certain crimes but was cleared and allowed to leave. On his return to Wales Owen was arrested and imprisoned in Newgate gaol.
Family Tree Details
|Father:||Charles (VI, King of France 1380-1422) (b.1338 - d.1422)|
|Mother:||Isabeau (of Bavaria) (b.1370 - d.1435)|
Catherine (of France) ( - d.1438)
+Henry (V, King of England 1413-1422) (b.1387 - d.1422) | =Henry (VI, King of England 1422-1461, 1470-1471) (b.1421 - d.1471) | +Margaret (of Anjou) (b.1429 - d.1482) | =Edward (of Lancaster, Prince of Wales) (b.1453 - d.1471) | +Neville, Anne (Duchess of Gloucester, Queen of England) (b.1456 - d.1485) +Tudor, Owen (b.1400 - d.1461) =Tudor, Edmund (Earl of Richmond) ( - d.1456) | +Beaufort, Lady Margaret (b.1443 - d.1509) | =Henry (VII, King of England 1485-1509) (b.1457 - d.1509) | +Elizabeth (of York) ( - d.1503) | =Arthur (Prince of Wales) (b.1486 - d.1502) | =Margaret (Tudor, Daughter of Henry VII) (b.1489 - d.1541) | =Henry (VIII, King of England 1509-1547) (b.1491 - d.1547) | =Mary (Tudor, Queen of France) (b.1495 - d.1533) =Tudor, Jasper (Earl of Pembroke) (b.1431 - d.1496) =Thomas (Westminster Monk)
Born: 1415 Died: 1492
Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye was the first book William Caxton published in Englsih. A translation of a French romance. He was in Bruges at the time where he was learning the process of printing.
William Caxton rented rooms near Westminster Abbey and set up the first printing press in England.
William Caxton set up a printing press near Westminster and printed the first book in England. It was called 'The Dictes and Sayenges of the Phylosophers' and was a translation by Earl Rivers, the Queens brother.
William Caxton published the first illustrated book in England. The Myrrour of the World was an encyclopedia and was a translation of an earlier work by Vinvent of Beauvais.
Cecily (Daughter of Edward IV)
Born: 1469 Died: 1507
James III of Scotland agreed that his new born son, James, should marry Edward IV's daughter Cecily. Cecily was only four and the agreement stated that the marriage should wait until both were old enough. Also, if either died before that time, a substitute would be found. This agreement brought peace between Scotland and England until October 1519.
Family Tree Details
|Father:||Edward (IV, Earl of March and King of England 1461-1470, 1471-1483) (b.1442 - d.1483)|
|Mother:||Woodville, Elizabeth (b.1437 - d.1492)|
Cecily (Daughter of Edward IV) (b.1469 - d.1507)
Charlemagne (Charles the Great)
Born: 742 Died: 814
After the death of his father, Pipin, Charlemagne was given the title King of the Franks at Noyon. He jointly held the position with his brother Karloman who was crowned on the same day.
Charlemagne was acclaimed as Roman Emperor in St Peter's in Rome by Pope Leo III.
Charlemagne's son Louis captured the city of Barcelona.
Charlemagne lived into his early seventies but after an illness he died and was buried in the basilica that he had built in Aachen. Charlemagne was succeeded by Louis the Pious who was the only surviving legitimate son.
Charles (Count of Valois, Anjou and Maine)
Family Tree Details
|Father:||Philippe (III, King of France 1270-1285) ( - d.1285)|
|Mother:||Isabella (of Aragon) ( - d.1271)|
Charles (The Rash, Ruler of Burgundy)
Edward IV had taken refuge with his brother-in-law Charles, the Duke of Burgundy. Louis of France declared war on Burgundy forcing the Duke to support Edward in his attempt to reclaim the English throne.
Edward IV and Charles of Burgundy met at Aire where an agreement was reached on support for Edward's return to his throne.
Edward's plans to unseat the King of France led to his invasion of France with a force of 10,000 men. He had been promised assistance from the Dukes of Brittany and Burgundy, and the King of Aragon. Unfortunately the Burgundian army did not turn up due to another conflict and Edward was left without sufficient men to proceed.
Charles (V, Holy Roman Emperor (1519-58) and I, King of Spain (1516-56))
Born: 1500 Died: 1558
A treaty was signed in London between the major European countries, England, France, Burgundy and many more. For Cardinal Wolsey this treaty was a plan to produce a peaceful Europe. The treaty stated that the countries must not attack one another and if they did the other countries would come to the aid of those being attacked. Within the treaty was the agreement that Henry's 2 year old daughter Mary would marry the French dauphin.
This treaty was conducted in secrecy at Bruges between Charles V and Thomas Wolsey. In the terms of the treaty Wolsey promised Charles that Henry VIII would join him in a joint campaign against France and Francis I. The meeting was held in secret because England was supposed to be a mediator in the dispute between Charles and Francis. The joint attacks of France would have to wait until March or May of 1523.
Philip II left England and travelled back to Brussels to see his father Charles. Charles was suffering from premature aging due to his excessive lifestytle and was preparing to abdicate from his duties as King of Spain and retire.
Charles (V, King of France 1364 - 1380)
Born: Jan 1338 Died: Sep 1380
The treaty of Bretigny brought a period of peace for nine years during the Hundred Years War. The treaty was arranged between the Black Prince and the dauphin (later Charles V of France) before being approved by Edward III of England and King John of France. As part of the treaty Edward was given control of the areas of Gascony, Calais and Ponthieu as long as he agreed to give up his claim for the French throne. King John, currently being held hostage in England, was to be released on condition of a payment of 3 million gold crowns to by paid in instalments.
Charles became king of France after the death of his father John and was crowned at Rheims Cathedral.
Charles V, King of France, died and was succeeded by his son Charles as King Charles VI, of France.
Family Tree Details
|Father:||John (II, King of France 1350-1364) (b.1319 - d.1364)|
|Mother:||Bonne (of Luxembourg)|
Charles (V, King of France 1364 - 1380) (b.1338 - d.1380)
+Joan (of Bourbon) =Charles (VI, King of France 1380-1422) (b.1338 - d.1422) +Isabeau (of Bavaria) (b.1370 - d.1435) =Isabella (of France, Wife of Richard II) (b.1389 - d.1409) | +Richard (II, King of England 1377-1399) (b.1367 - d.1400) =Charles (VII, King of France 1422-1461) (b.1403 - d.1461) | +Marie (of Anjou) | =Louis (XI, King of France 1461-1483) =Catherine (of France) ( - d.1438) +Henry (V, King of England 1413-1422) (b.1387 - d.1422) | =Henry (VI, King of England 1422-1461, 1470-1471) (b.1421 - d.1471) +Tudor, Owen (b.1400 - d.1461) =Tudor, Edmund (Earl of Richmond) ( - d.1456) =Tudor, Jasper (Earl of Pembroke) (b.1431 - d.1496) =Thomas (Westminster Monk)
Charles (VI, King of France 1380-1422)
Born: 1338 Died: 1422
Charles V, King of France, died and was succeeded by his son Charles as King Charles VI, of France.
The marriage of Richard II and the seven or eight year-old Isabella of Valois took place at Calais. Isabella was the daughter of Charles VI, King of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. Richard was near thirty years old but the marriage went ahead because it was part of a peace treaty between the English and French Kings.
France was in the midst of a civil war between the Burgundians and the Armagnacs. Charles VI, the king of France, had joined the Armagnacs. Henry came in on the side of the Burgundians and saw the opportunity to reclaim lost lands in France. Henry's plan was to invade France but he needed a good reason. He gave the French king a list of demands including the French throne, the restoration of the Angevin empire and the hand of the king's daughter in marriage. If the demands could not be met Henry could go to war.
Charles VI of France died and was buried in the Saint Denis Basilica. Henry VI of England was proclaimed king of France and John Duke of Bedford was appointed regent.
Family Tree Details
|Father:||Charles (V, King of France 1364 - 1380) (b.1338 - d.1380)|
|Mother:||Joan (of Bourbon)|
Charles (VI, King of France 1380-1422) (b.1338 - d.1422)
+Isabeau (of Bavaria) (b.1370 - d.1435) =Isabella (of France, Wife of Richard II) (b.1389 - d.1409) | +Richard (II, King of England 1377-1399) (b.1367 - d.1400) =Charles (VII, King of France 1422-1461) (b.1403 - d.1461) | +Marie (of Anjou) | =Louis (XI, King of France 1461-1483) | +Margaret (Stewart) ( - d.1445) =Catherine (of France) ( - d.1438) +Henry (V, King of England 1413-1422) (b.1387 - d.1422) | =Henry (VI, King of England 1422-1461, 1470-1471) (b.1421 - d.1471) | +Margaret (of Anjou) (b.1429 - d.1482) | =Edward (of Lancaster, Prince of Wales) (b.1453 - d.1471) +Tudor, Owen (b.1400 - d.1461) =Tudor, Edmund (Earl of Richmond) ( - d.1456) | +Beaufort, Lady Margaret (b.1443 - d.1509) | =Henry (VII, King of England 1485-1509) (b.1457 - d.1509) =Tudor, Jasper (Earl of Pembroke) (b.1431 - d.1496) =Thomas (Westminster Monk)
Charles (VIII, King of France 1483-1498)
Born: 1470 Died: 7 Apr 1498
Not to be confused with a treaty of the same name in 1435. This treaty was signed by Louis XI of France and Maximillian of Austria. It was agreed that Charles, the son of Louis, would marry Margaret, the daughter of Maximillian. Margaret's intended dowry (what she would have brought as a gift to her husband) included the counties of Artios and Burgundy. The marriage though would not take place.
Louis XI had suffered from a series of strokes that had left him partially paralysed since 1480 and a further stroke in August of 1483 was the final one. He died a few days later. Louis had two daughters and a son. Before his death, Louis had declared that Charles, his son, should be the next King of France but because Charles was in poor health and had been given a poor education Louis specified that Anne, his eldest daughter, should act a regent until Charles was able to rule unaided.
Henry Tudor landed at Milford Haven in Wales avoiding the south coast which was more heavily defended and made his way north. He was given money by Charles VIII of France to pay for soldiers and ships for the invasion.
The peace treaty signed by Charles VIII and Henry VII. Charles agreed not to support Perkin Warbeck and Henry agreed not pursue his claim to the French throne. Charles also had to pay Henry a large sum of money to be paid over several years.
In 1494 Charles VIII of France had taken an army into Italy to claim the throne of Naples which he believed was his right to have. As his army met no resistance he entered Naples and had himself crowned King.
At Venice it was decided to put a force together to remove King Charles of France from Italy. It was signed by the Pope, Ferdinand of Aragon, Maximilian the Holy Roman Emperor, the Ruler of Milan and also had the backing of Venice itself.
Charles VIII of France died due to complications occurred after banging his head on a low doorway as he walked through a dimly lit Amboise Castle. He was succeeded by Louis XII.
Charnay, Geoffrey de
Clifford, John (9th Lord Clifford)
Died: 28 Mar 1461
This small battle occurred just before the larger battle of Towton. The Lancastrians were defeated and John Clifford, Lord Clifford was killed.
Charles the Good, Count of Flanders, was murdered as he prayed in the church of Saint-Donatien at Bruges. His murder came as a huge shock and, as he did not have a son to inherit his title, the murder started a period of conflict in the region. Several claiments came forward including William of Ypres, Thierry of Alsace and William Clito. William Clito's claim was backed by Louis VI.
Family Tree Details
|Father:||Robert (II, Duke of Normandy 1087-1106) ( - d.1134)|
|Mother:||Sybilla (of Conversano)|
Clito, William ( - d.1128)
Work progressed on the vaults of the nave and crossing, the west front, north porch and east cloister. Until 1395. The work was desiged by the master mason John Clyve.
Comnenus, Alexius (Byzantine Emperor)
The civil wars following the battle of Manzikert led to Alexius Comnenus becoming the Eastern Emperor.
A delegation led by the Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus visited Pope Urban II to raise the problems he was having fighting the Muslims in the East. Pope Urban removed the excommunication that had been placed on the Emperor by Pope Gregory and promised to help.
Peter the Hermit's army of ordinary people was large and it needed feeding. One of the more noble members of the army was Walter Sans Avoir, also known as Walter the Penniless. When the army reached Cologne in April Peter decided to halt the army to take advantage of the good supply of food. Walter was impatient and with a small section of the army continued on. They passed through Hungary but at the town of Semlin a dispute broke out when some of his men stole food. When his men were refused food at Belgrade because the harvest had not yet been gathered Walter's army began pillaging the surrounding area. Finally Alexius Comnenus sent supplies and an escort to guard the Crusaders as they marched to Constantinople. The guard ensured that the Crusaders didn't cause any more trouble.
When the crusaders arrived at Constantinople they were greeted by Emperor Alexius. The Emperor was happy for the crusaders to capture areas of the Holy Land but he wanted the land to be under his control. Alexius persuaded the Leaders of the crusaders to swear an oath of allegiance to him and to hand over the land they captured. They could however be allowed to live on and rule that land but not own it.
The Crusaders began their campaign with a siege of the city of Nicaea. Before the Crusaders stormed the city, the Turks surrendered. They did not surrender to the Crusaders but to the Emperor instead. This infuriated the Crusaders who were expecting a large haul of treasure from the city. But the city was important for the Crusaders as control of it ensured they could not be attacked as they moved further east.
Spurred on by the find of the Spear of Longinus, the spear that was supposed to have pierced Jesus on the cross, the Crusaders emerged from the city of Antioch to face the Moslems. The Moslems were defeated, many being killed and many fleeing. After the batlle the ownership of the city was disputed. Bohemund and Raymond of Toulouse argued over its possession and after several months of debate Raymond accepted Bohemund's right to it. In truth, the city should have been handed over to Emporer Alexius.
Conrad (III, Emperor of Germany)
Born: 1093 Died: 1152
Diet of Speyer; the emperor Conrad III took the cross and secured the election of his son Henry as his successor in Germany. He was persuaded to take part in the crusade by the the Abbot of Clairvaux, St. Bernard.
The decision was made to attack Damascus. The armies were assembled in Acre. Present were Baldwin, the Patriarch Fulcher, Kings Louis and Conrad, Archbishops of Caesarea and Nazareth, Masters of the Knights Temple and Hospital.
Hostilities between the French and German leaders of the Second Crusade became such a problem that the German Emperor, Conrad III, abandoned the crusade and returned to Constantinople. The Second Crusade ended in failure.
Constance (of Castile)
Constantine (I, Ruler of the Scots 863 - 877)
Invaders from Scandinavia were a constant threat to the Scots and an invasion in 877 resulted in the death of the Scottish King, Constantine I. He was succeeded by his his brother Aed.
Constantine (II, King of the Scottish 900-942)
Constantine claimed the throne of Scotland when Donald II was killed in battle.
With the death of Sihtric, the Danish leader in the North of England, Athelstan was able to then drive out the Dane's sons. This left Athelstan the master of Northumbria. His attacks on the Welsh and the submission of Constantine the King of Scotland and Owen the King of Cumberland led to him becoming overlord.
Athelstan put together a large army and invaded Scotland destroying it as he advanced north.
The Dane Anlaff (possibly Sihtric's son), Owen of Cumberland and Constantine, King of the Scots sailed into the Humber to invade Northumbria. Athelstan's speed at raising his army that marched north put paid to any plans of invasion and a fierce battle occurred (Brunanburgh near Beverley ?) in which many Danish kings and earls were killed.
Constantine abdicated in 943 to retire to a monastery. Malcolm I became ruler of Scotland.
Cranmer, Thomas (Archbishop of Canterbury)
Born: 1489 Died: 1556
Thomas Cranmer declared that the marriage between Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon was illegal and was annulled. The marriage between Henry and Anne Boleyn could then be formalised.
Thomas Cranmer declared that the marriage between Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn was legal.
Anne Boleyn was crowned Queen of England at Westminster Abbey by the Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer.
The short rebellion that took place for a couple of weeks in October was the prelude for a much larger rebellion known as the Pilgrimage of Grace. The Lincolnshire rebellion began in response to Henry VIII's unpopular policies, including the Dissolution of the Monasteries. The Rebels also had grievances against Henry's unpopular advisers like Thomas Cranmer. The rebels consisted of both common people and land owners alike, but some land owners were forced to take part. The rebels reached Lincoln where they were assured Henry VIII would listen to their demands if they disbanded. Meanwhile Henry ordered that a army should be sent to Lincoln as kill the rebels. By the time that army, led by the Duke of Suffolk, reached Lincoln the rebels had dispersed.
Following the earlier Lincoln rebellion, a larger rebellion began further north in Yorkshire. This rebellion again protested against Henry VIII's unpopular policies and advisers. They wanted Henry to put a stop to the dissolution of the monasteries and they wanted the removal of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer and Henry's adviser Thomas Cromwell. The leader of the rebellion was Robert Aske, a lawyer and excellent organiser. Somewhere between 30,000 and 35,000 rebels were involved and they took control of Pontefract Castle which fell to them without any resistance.
Crinan (Abbot of Dunkeld)
Crinan, the Abbot of Dunkfeld, led an uprising against Macbeth in an attempt to put his grandson Malcolm (III) on the Scottish throne. Malcolm was living at the court of Edward the Confessor at the time. Crinian was killed and the uprising failed.
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A Medieval Mystery
There appear to be some strange connections between the fourteenth century Old Wardour Castle and ancient stone circle Stonehenge.
Old Wardour Castle appears to be aligned to ancient sites in the Stonehenge landscape.
Stonehenge is aligned to the Summer Solstice. Old Wardour has a very similar alignment.
Could the builders of Old Wardour used mesaurements from Stonehenge to layout the geometrical keep?