Catherine (of France)

Died: 3 Jan 1438

ife of Henry V, king of England and also Owen Tudor. For more information see Owen Tudor.

Family Tree Details
Father: Charles (VI, King of France 1380-1422) (b.1338 - d.1422)
Mother: Isabeau (of Bavaria) (b.1370 - d.1435)
Catherine (of France) ( - d.1438)
+Henry (V, King of England 1413-1422) (b.1387 - d.1422) | =Henry (VI, King of England 1422-1461, 1470-1471) (b.1421 - d.1471) | +Margaret (of Anjou) (b.1429 - d.1482) | =Edward (of Lancaster, Prince of Wales) (b.1453 - d.1471) | +Neville, Anne (Duchess of Gloucester, Queen of England) (b.1456 - d.1485) +Tudor, Owen (b.1400 - d.1461) =Tudor, Edmund (Earl of Richmond) ( - d.1456) | +Beaufort, Lady Margaret (b.1443 - d.1509) | =Henry (VII, King of England 1485-1509) (b.1457 - d.1509) | +Elizabeth (of York) ( - d.1503) | =Arthur (Prince of Wales) (b.1486 - d.1502) | | +Catherine (of Aragon) (b.1485 - d.1536) | =Margaret (Tudor, Daughter of Henry VII) (b.1489 - d.1541) | | +James (IV King of Scotland 1488-1513) (b.1473 - d.1513) | | | =James (V, King of Scotland 1513-1542) (b.1512 - d.1542) | | +Douglas, Archibald (Earl of Angus) ( - d.1557) | | =Douglas, Margaret ( - d.1578) | =Henry (VIII, King of England 1509-1547) (b.1491 - d.1547) | | +Catherine (of Aragon) (b.1485 - d.1536) | | | =Mary (I, Queen of England 1553-1558, Bloody Mary, Mary Tudor) (b.1516 - d.1558) | | +Boleyn, Anne ( - ex.1536) | | | =Elizabeth (I, Queen of England 1558-1603) (b.1533 - d.1603) | | +Seymour, Jane ( - d.1537) | | | =Edward (VI, King of England 1547-1553) (b.1537 - d.1553) | | +Anne (of Cleves) (b.1515 - d.1557) | | +Howard, Catherine ( - ex.1542) | | +Parr, Catherine | =Mary (Tudor, Queen of France) (b.1495 - d.1533) | +Louis (XII, King of France) ( - d.1515) | +Brandon, Charles (Duke of Suffolk) (b.1485 - d.1545) | =Frances (Lady) | =Clifford, Eleanor (Lady) ( - d.1547) =Tudor, Jasper (Earl of Pembroke) (b.1431 - d.1496) =Thomas (Westminster Monk)

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1420 Jun 2  Henry marries
 The marriage of Henry and Catherine the daughter of Charles VI king of France sealed the Treaty of Troyes.  
1421 Feb 23  Queen Catherine crowned
 Queen Catherine was crowned at Westminster Abbey.  
 Dec 6  Birth of Henry (VI)
 Prince Henry (later Henry VI) was born at Windsor. 
1429   Marriage of Owen Tudor and Catherine of France
 It is believed that Owen Tudor and Catherine were secretly married in this year or just before. 
1437 Jan 3  Catherine of France dies
 Catherine died in this year after retiring to Bermondsey Abbey. Some reports say she died whilst giving birth, but this is probably wrong. 
 Qtr 2  Owen Tudor is captured
 After the death of Catherine of France Owen Tudor was summonsed by Henry VI. Owen was unsure of Henry's motives and wanted some guarantee that he would be able to leave unharmed. That guarantee was given and Owen went to London. Still cautious, Owen used the safety of Westminster to investigate the King's reasons for his summons and when he was relatively happy visited the King. Owen was charged with certain crimes but was cleared and allowed to leave. On his return to Wales Owen was arrested and imprisoned in Newgate gaol. 

Caxton, William

Born: 1415 Died: 1492

illiam Caxton printed the first book in England in 1477. Medieval books before the invention of printing involved each copy being written by hand. This was a slow process and potentially each book had minor differences and errors. Because of this, medieval books were rare and expensive to produce. The process of printing was invented in Germany by Johann Gutenburg who first printed a series of Bibles, known as the Gutenburg Bibles in around 1455. The breakthough was the use of small moveable metal letters that could be rearranged time and again to produce the words on the pages.Caxton was a businessman and saw the potential of selling printed books when he saw the new technology on his trading journeys in Germany. In Bruges he set up his own printing press where he gained knowledge of the printing process and soon afterwards came back to England and set up a press near Westminster. The books he published were European works of romance and history, some in French, that he translated into English himself or with the help of others.
1474   William Caxton's first book
 Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye was the first book William Caxton published in Englsih. A translation of a French romance. He was in Bruges at the time where he was learning the process of printing. 
1476   Caxton at Westminster
 William Caxton rented rooms near Westminster Abbey and set up the first printing press in England. 
1477   Caxton prints the first book in England
 William Caxton set up a printing press near Westminster and printed the first book in England. It was called 'The Dictes and Sayenges of the Phylosophers' and was a translation by Earl Rivers, the Queens brother. 
1481   Caxton publishes first illustrated book in England
 William Caxton published the first illustrated book in England. The Myrrour of the World was an encyclopedia and was a translation of an earlier work by Vinvent of Beauvais. 

Cecily (Daughter of Edward IV)

Born: 1469 Died: 1507

aughter of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville. In 1473 Cecily was betrothed to James the son of James III, King of Scotland in return for peace on the border between England and Scotland. Cecily was only four at the time and the arrangement would have to wait until both she and James were old enough to marry.
1473 Oct  Marriage agreement between England and Scotland
 James III of Scotland agreed that his new born son, James, should marry Edward IV's daughter Cecily. Cecily was only four and the agreement stated that the marriage should wait until both were old enough. Also, if either died before that time, a substitute would be found. This agreement brought peace between Scotland and England until October 1519. 

Charlemagne (Charles the Great)

Born: 742 Died: 814

harlemagne was born in 742 or 747. He was the son of Pipin the Short, ruler of the Franks, who died in 768. Charlemagne had a brother, Karloman, and when Pipin died tradition was followed and the lands he had controlled were divided between the two brothers. Conflicts between the two brothers were serious but the conflicts came to and end in 771 when Karloman died and his lands passed into Charlemagne's possession. In 800 Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as Emperor of the huge empire covering what today is the area of France, Italy and parts of Germany.
768 Oct 9  Charlemagne becomes King
 After the death of his father, Pipin, Charlemagne was given the title King of the Franks at Noyon. He jointly held the position with his brother Karloman who was crowned on the same day.[1] 
800 Dec 25  Charlemagne becomes Emperor
 Charlemagne was acclaimed as Roman Emperor in St Peter's in Rome by Pope Leo III. 
801   Barcelona captured for Charlemagne
 Charlemagne's son Louis captured the city of Barcelona.[2] 
814 Jan 28  Charlemagne dies
 Charlemagne lived into his early seventies but after an illness he died and was buried in the basilica that he had built in Aachen. Charlemagne was succeeded by Louis the Pious who was the only surviving legitimate son.[1] 

Charles (The Rash, Ruler of Burgundy)

harles became the ruler and Duke of Bugundy after the death of Philippe the Good, Duke of Burgundy in 1467. He married Margaret the sister of Edward IV and Richard III. In 1470 Edward fled to Burgundy after the Earl of Warwick and the Lancastrians conspired against him. Charles remaining neutral until the king of France declared war on Burgundy. The Duke decided to assist Edward reclaim his throne.
1470 Qtr 4  Louis declares war on Burgundy
 Edward IV had taken refuge with his brother-in-law Charles, the Duke of Burgundy. Louis of France declared war on Burgundy forcing the Duke to support Edward in his attempt to reclaim the English throne.[3] 
1471 Jan  Support for Edward IV
 Edward IV and Charles of Burgundy met at Aire where an agreement was reached on support for Edward's return to his throne.[4] 
1475 Jul  Edward invades France
 Edward's plans to unseat the King of France led to his invasion of France with a force of 10,000 men. He had been promised assistance from the Dukes of Brittany and Burgundy, and the King of Aragon. Unfortunately the Burgundian army did not turn up due to another conflict and Edward was left without sufficient men to proceed. 

Charles (V, Holy Roman Emperor (1519-58) and I, King of Spain (1516-56))

Born: 1500 Died: 1558

harles was the eldest son of Joanna of Castile and Philip I of Castile. Charles became King of Spain in 1516 after the death of his grandfather Ferdinand II of Aragon.
Early Modern Period (1500-1800)
1518 Oct  Treaty of London (Universal Peace)
 A treaty was signed in London between the major European countries, England, France, Burgundy and many more. For Cardinal Wolsey this treaty was a plan to produce a peaceful Europe. The treaty stated that the countries must not attack one another and if they did the other countries would come to the aid of those being attacked. Within the treaty was the agreement that Henry's 2 year old daughter Mary would marry the French dauphin. 
1521 Nov  Treaty of Bruges
 This treaty was conducted in secrecy at Bruges between Charles V and Thomas Wolsey. In the terms of the treaty Wolsey promised Charles that Henry VIII would join him in a joint campaign against France and Francis I. The meeting was held in secret because England was supposed to be a mediator in the dispute between Charles and Francis. The joint attacks of France would have to wait until March or May of 1523. 
1555 Sep  Philip leaves England
 Philip II left England and travelled back to Brussels to see his father Charles. Charles was suffering from premature aging due to his excessive lifestytle and was preparing to abdicate from his duties as King of Spain and retire.[5] 

Charles (V, King of France 1364 - 1380)

Born: Jan 1338 Died: Sep 1380

member of the house of Valois, Charles was the king of France from 1364 until 1380.
1360 May  Treaty of Bretigny
 The treaty of Bretigny brought a period of peace for nine years during the Hundred Years War. The treaty was arranged between the Black Prince and the dauphin (later Charles V of France) before being approved by Edward III of England and King John of France. As part of the treaty Edward was given control of the areas of Gascony, Calais and Ponthieu as long as he agreed to give up his claim for the French throne. King John, currently being held hostage in England, was to be released on condition of a payment of 3 million gold crowns to by paid in instalments.

Episode: Edward III - The Hundred Years War  
1364   Charles V becomes King of France
 Charles became king of France after the death of his father John and was crowned at Rheims Cathedral.[6]

Episode: Edward III - The Hundred Years War  
1380   Death of Charles V and accession of Charles VI
 Charles V, King of France, died and was succeeded by his son Charles as King Charles VI, of France. 

Charles (VI, King of France 1380-1422)

Born: 1338 Died: 1422

lso known as 'the Mad' or 'the Fool', Charles was King of France from 1380 until 1422. He suffered from bouts of madness during his life.
1380   Death of Charles V and accession of Charles VI
 Charles V, King of France, died and was succeeded by his son Charles as King Charles VI, of France. 
1396 Oct 31  Richard II marries Isabella of Valois
 The marriage of Richard II and the seven or eight year-old Isabella of Valois took place at Calais. Isabella was the daughter of Charles VI, King of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. Richard was near thirty years old but the marriage went ahead because it was part of a peace treaty between the English and French Kings.[4] 
1414 Summer  Henry claims French territories
 France was in the midst of a civil war between the Burgundians and the Armagnacs. Charles VI, the king of France, had joined the Armagnacs. Henry came in on the side of the Burgundians and saw the opportunity to reclaim lost lands in France. Henry's plan was to invade France but he needed a good reason. He gave the French king a list of demands including the French throne, the restoration of the Angevin empire and the hand of the king's daughter in marriage. If the demands could not be met Henry could go to war.

Episode: Henry V - The Hundred Years War  
1420 May 21  Treaty of Troyes
 Henry V pledged to recover all the lands of the dauphin Charles and (24.5) Henry recognised as heir to the French throne.

Episode: Henry V - The Hundred Years War  
 Jun 2  Henry marries
 The marriage of Henry and Catherine the daughter of Charles VI king of France sealed the Treaty of Troyes.  
1422 Oct 21  Charles VI of France dies
 Charles VI of France died and was buried in the Saint Denis Basilica. Henry VI of England was proclaimed king of France and John Duke of Bedford was appointed regent.[4]

Episode: Henry V - The Hundred Years War  

Charles (VIII, King of France 1483-1498)

Born: 1470 Died: 7 Apr 1498

harles was the son of Louis XI, the King of France. Charles became King of France at the age of 13 when his father died, but did not take control of the country straight away. Charles was in poor health and had not been given a good education. On his death-bed Louis had specified that his eldest daughter, Anne, should act a regent for the country until Charles was fit to reign.

Family Tree Details
Charles (VIII, King of France 1483-1498) (b.1470 - d.1498)
+Anne (of Brittany) ( - d.1514)

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1482   Treaty of Arras
 Not to be confused with a treaty of the same name in 1435. This treaty was signed by Louis XI of France and Maximillian of Austria. It was agreed that Charles, the son of Louis, would marry Margaret, the daughter of Maximillian. Margaret's intended dowry (what she would have brought as a gift to her husband) included the counties of Artios and Burgundy. The marriage though would not take place.[7] 
1483 Aug 30  Death of Louis XI
 Louis XI had suffered from a series of strokes that had left him partially paralysed since 1480 and a further stroke in August of 1483 was the final one. He died a few days later. Louis had two daughters and a son. Before his death, Louis had declared that Charles, his son, should be the next King of France but because Charles was in poor health and had been given a poor education Louis specified that Anne, his eldest daughter, should act a regent until Charles was able to rule unaided.[8] 
1485 Aug 7  Henry Tudor arrives in England
 Henry Tudor landed at Milford Haven in Wales avoiding the south coast which was more heavily defended and made his way north. He was given money by Charles VIII of France to pay for soldiers and ships for the invasion.[4]

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
1492 Nov 3  Treaty of Etaples
 The peace treaty signed by Charles VIII and Henry VII. Charles agreed not to support Perkin Warbeck and Henry agreed not pursue his claim to the French throne. Charles also had to pay Henry a large sum of money to be paid over several years. 
1495 Feb  Charles crowned King of Naples
 In 1494 Charles VIII of France had taken an army into Italy to claim the throne of Naples which he believed was his right to have. As his army met no resistance he entered Naples and had himself crowned King.[8] 
 Mar 31  Holy League (League of Venice)
 At Venice it was decided to put a force together to remove King Charles of France from Italy. It was signed by the Pope, Ferdinand of Aragon, Maximilian the Holy Roman Emperor, the Ruler of Milan and also had the backing of Venice itself.[9] 
1498 Apr 7  Death of Charles VIII of France
 Charles VIII of France died due to complications occurred after banging his head on a low doorway as he walked through a dimly lit Amboise Castle. He was succeeded by Louis XII. 

Charnay, Geoffrey de

ne of the leaders of the Knights Templar at the time of the order's arrest in 1307.
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Chaucer, Geoffrey

Born: 1340 Died: 1400

anterbury Tales.
1387   The Canterbury Tales
 Geoffrey Chaucer begins the Canterbury Tales. 
1400 Oct 25  Death of Geoffrey Chaucer.
 Geoffrey Chaucer died.

Clifford, John (9th Lord Clifford)

Died: 28 Mar 1461

ohn Clifford and his father Thomas were both Lancastrians and supporters of King Henry VI. After Thomas was killed at the batlle of St. Allbans John demanded compensation for his death. He gained the nickname of 'butcher' due to his lack on mercy. He slew Edmund Plantagenet at the battle of Wakefield while the young man was begging for his life. John Clifford was killed in battle at Ferrybridge the day before the major Lancastrian defeat at Townton.
1461 Mar 28  Battle of Ferrybridge
 This small battle occurred just before the larger battle of Towton. The Lancastrians were defeated and John Clifford, Lord Clifford was killed.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  

Clifford, Rosamond

Died: 1176

enry II's mistress. Rosamond was the daughter of a Welsh baron. Henry's wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine was imprisoned in 1173 and it may have been at this time that the affair between Henry and Rosamond began. Rosamond died in 1176, possibly poisoned by Eleanor who had located her secret hide-away at Woodstock. Rosamond was buried at Godstow nunnery where Henry had a shrine built above her tomb.
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Clito, William

Died: 1128

on of Robert II, Duke of Normandy and Sybilla of Conversano.

Family Tree Details
Father: Robert (II, Duke of Normandy 1087-1106) ( - d.1134)
Mother: Sybilla (of Conversano)
Clito, William ( - d.1128)

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1127 Mar 2  Murder of the Count of Flanders
 Charles the Good, Count of Flanders, was murdered as he prayed in the church of Saint-Donatien at Bruges. His murder came as a huge shock and, as he did not have a son to inherit his title, the murder started a period of conflict in the region. Several claiments came forward including William of Ypres, Thierry of Alsace and William Clito. William Clito's claim was backed by Louis VI.[10] 

Clyve, John

ohn Clyve was a master mason who lived during the fourteenth century. His main works are at Worcester Cathedral from around 1360 including the nave, the west front, cloister and central tower.
1375 - 1395 Worcester Cathedral major building work
 Work progressed on the vaults of the nave and crossing, the west front, north porch and east cloister. Until 1395. The work was desiged by the master mason John Clyve.[11] 

Comnenus, Alexius (Byzantine Emperor)

lexius Comnenus became emperor of Byzantium in 1081 after a palace revolution and was excommunicated by the Pope. Alexius took control of the Byzantine army that had fallen into a state of disarray.
1081   Accession of Alexius Comnenus
 The civil wars following the battle of Manzikert led to Alexius Comnenus becoming the Eastern Emperor.[12] 
1095 Mar  The Council of Piacenza
 A delegation led by the Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus visited Pope Urban II to raise the problems he was having fighting the Muslims in the East. Pope Urban removed the excommunication that had been placed on the Emperor by Pope Gregory and promised to help.

Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade  
1096 Qtr 2  Crusaders cause trouble
 Peter the Hermit's army of ordinary people was large and it needed feeding. One of the more noble members of the army was Walter Sans Avoir, also known as Walter the Penniless. When the army reached Cologne in April Peter decided to halt the army to take advantage of the good supply of food. Walter was impatient and with a small section of the army continued on. They passed through Hungary but at the town of Semlin a dispute broke out when some of his men stole food. When his men were refused food at Belgrade because the harvest had not yet been gathered Walter's army began pillaging the surrounding area. Finally Alexius Comnenus sent supplies and an escort to guard the Crusaders as they marched to Constantinople. The guard ensured that the Crusaders didn't cause any more trouble.[13]

Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade  
1097 Apr  Crusaders reach Constantinople
 When the crusaders arrived at Constantinople they were greeted by Emperor Alexius. The Emperor was happy for the crusaders to capture areas of the Holy Land but he wanted the land to be under his control. Alexius persuaded the Leaders of the crusaders to swear an oath of allegiance to him and to hand over the land they captured. They could however be allowed to live on and rule that land but not own it.

Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade  
 May  Siege of Nicaea
 The Crusaders began their campaign with a siege of the city of Nicaea. Before the Crusaders stormed the city, the Turks surrendered. They did not surrender to the Crusaders but to the Emperor instead. This infuriated the Crusaders who were expecting a large haul of treasure from the city. But the city was important for the Crusaders as control of it ensured they could not be attacked as they moved further east.[14]

Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade  
1098 Jun 28  The Crusaders fight back
 Spurred on by the find of the Spear of Longinus, the spear that was supposed to have pierced Jesus on the cross, the Crusaders emerged from the city of Antioch to face the Moslems. The Moslems were defeated, many being killed and many fleeing. After the batlle the ownership of the city was disputed. Bohemund and Raymond of Toulouse argued over its possession and after several months of debate Raymond accepted Bohemund's right to it. In truth, the city should have been handed over to Emporer Alexius.[14]

Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade  

Conrad (III, Emperor of Germany)

Born: 1093 Died: 1152

onrad III, the Emperor of Germany from 1138, joined Louis VII during the Second Crusade.
1146 Dec 25  Diet of Spires
 Diet of Spires; the emperor Conrad III took the cross and secured the election of his son Henry as his successor in Germany.[4]

Episode: The Second Crusade  
1148 Jun 24  Damascus attacked
 The decision was made to attack Damascus. The armies were assembled in Acre. Present were Baldwin, the Patriarch Fulcher, Kings Louis and Conrad, Archbishops of Caesarea and Nazareth, Masters of the Knights Temple and Hospital.[15]

Episode: The Second Crusade  
 Sep  Conrad III leaves the Holy Land
 Hostilities between the French and German leaders of the Second Crusade became such a problem that the German Emperor, Conrad III, abandoned the crusade and returned to Constantinople. The Second Crusade ended in failure.[4]

Episode: The Second Crusade  

Constance (of Castile)

econd wife of King Louis VII, King of France. Louis and Constance were married shortly after the annulment of Louis' first marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine.
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Constantine (I, Ruler of the Scots 863 - 877)

Died: 877

onstantine was the son of Kenneth MacAplin, ruler of the Scots, and became King of Scotland when Kenneth's brother Donald died. Dealing with Viking raids occupied much of Constantine's reign. His main opponent was Olaf the White a Viking who was also the King of Dublin.
877   Death of Constantine I
 Invaders from Scandinavia were a constant threat to the Scots and an invasion in 877 resulted in the death of the Scottish King, Constantine I. He was succeeded by his his brother Aed.

Episode: Viking Invasions  

Constantine (II, King of the Scottish 900-942)

Died: 952

onstantine was the son of Aedh. Aedh had been a ruler in Scotland and was killed by Giric, who along with Eochaid ruled Scotland from 878 to 879. Donald II defeated Giric and Eoacaid in 889 and became King. Constantine had fled Scotland but returned to claim the Scottish throne when Donald was killed in battle in 900. Constantine ruled for 43 years after which he retired to a monastery at St. Andrews. During his reign he had to contend with invasions from the Danes as well as the English. He was defeated by the English King Athelstan in 937 at Brunanburh. He died in 952.
900   Constantine becomes ruler of Scotland
 Constantine claimed the throne of Scotland when Donald II was killed in battle. 
927   Athelstan becomes overlord King
 With the death of Sihtric, the Danish leader in the North of England, Athelstan was able to then drive out the Dane's sons. This left Athelstan the master of Northumbria. His attacks on the Welsh and the submission of Constantine the King of Scotland and Owen the King of Cumberland led to him becoming overlord. 
934   Athelstan invades Scotland
 Athelstan put together a large army and invaded Scotland destroying it as he advanced north.  
937   Danish invasion
 The Dane Anlaff (possibly Sihtric's son), Owen of Cumberland and Constantine, King of the Scots sailed into the Humber to invade Northumbria. Athelstan's speed at raising his army that marched north put paid to any plans of invasion and a fierce battle occurred (Brunanburgh near Beverley ?) in which many Danish kings and earls were killed.

Episode: Viking Invasions  
943   Malcolm I becomes ruler of Scotland
 Constantine abdicated in 943 to retire to a monastery. Malcolm I became ruler of Scotland. 

Cranmer, Thomas (Archbishop of Canterbury)

Born: 1489 Died: 1556

homas Cranmer was the Archbishop of Canterbury and an adviser to Henry VIII.
Early Modern Period (1500-1800)
1533 May 23  Marriage to Catherine of Aragon declared illegal
 Thomas Cranmer declared that the marriage between Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon was illegal and was annulled. The marriage between Henry and Anne Boleyn could then be formalised. 
 May 28  Marriage to Anne Boleyn declared legal
 Thomas Cranmer declared that the marriage between Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn was legal. 
 Jun 1  Coronation of Anne Boleyn
 Anne Boleyn was crowned Queen of England at Westminster Abbey by the Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer.

Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives  
1536 Oct 2  Lincolnshire Rebellion
 The short rebellion that took place for a couple of weeks in October was the prelude for a much larger rebellion known as the Pilgrimage of Grace. The Lincolnshire rebellion began in response to Henry VIII's unpopular policies, including the Dissolution of the Monasteries. The Rebels also had grievances against Henry's unpopular advisers like Thomas Cranmer. The rebels consisted of both common people and land owners alike, but some land owners were forced to take part. The rebels reached Lincoln where they were assured Henry VIII would listen to their demands if they disbanded. Meanwhile Henry ordered that a army should be sent to Lincoln as kill the rebels. By the time that army, led by the Duke of Suffolk, reached Lincoln the rebels had dispersed. 
 Oct 21  Pilgrimage of Grace
 Following the earlier Lincoln rebellion, a larger rebellion began further north in Yorkshire. This rebellion again protested against Henry VIII's unpopular policies and advisers. They wanted Henry to put a stop to the dissolution of the monasteries and they wanted the removal of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer and Henry's adviser Thomas Cromwell. The leader of the rebellion was Robert Aske, a lawyer and excellent organiser. Somewhere between 30,000 and 35,000 rebels were involved and they took control of Pontefract Castle which fell to them without any resistance. 

Crinan (Abbot of Dunkeld)

arried Bethoc, the daughter of Malcolm II. Their son became Duncan I, Scottish king from 1034 to 1040.

Family Tree Details


1045   Crinan killed during uprising
 Crinan, the Abbot of Dunkfeld, led an uprising against Macbeth in an attempt to put his grandson Malcolm (III) on the Scottish throne. Malcolm was living at the court of Edward the Confessor at the time. Crinian was killed and the uprising failed.