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Captured by the English, William I of Scotland was forced to sign the Treaty of Falaise. The treaty made Scotland a feudal possession of England and William and his nobles swore fealty to Henry II. William had to hand over several castles to the English in return for his freedom. One of these was Stirling Castle.This treaty was overruled by King Richard I in return for funds paid by Scotland that Richard needed for his crusade in 1189.
William Wallace and Andrew De Moray leaders of the Scottish revolt in the South and North joined forces and defeated the English army led by Surrey at Stirling. The Scots caught the English forces as they crossed a bridge across the Forth.
Edward spent the winter months at Dunfermline Abbey where he planned the attack on Stirling Castle.
Stirling castle was still under the control of English forces but was under siege from the Scots led by Edward Bruce. Bruce and the English commander, Sir Philippe de Mowbray, came to an agreement that if English forces had not reached the castle by midsummer 1314, Mowbray would surrender the castle to the Scots. Bruce even let Mowbray leave the castle to inform the English king of the agreement.
Edward II and his army left Berwick to march to Stirling Castle which they had to reach before midsummer's day if the castle were to be saved from falling back into the hands of the Scots.
Forces led by Edward II were defeated by Robert I at Bannockburn. Edward was trying to reach Stirling Castle to relieve the English forces there. This was an important battle for the Scots to win and helped them to make some gains of land in northern England even if the success was short-lived.
Edward III reached Stirling Castle with supplies to assist the English garrison there that was under siege from Sir Andrew Moray.
When James I returned to Scotland and take the thone he found that the country was in a poor state of affairs. There were many barons who had used the time of his imprisonment to further their own ambitions rather than to protect Scotland and it's people. These included Murdoch Stewart and his sons, Walter and Alexander. Murdoch had been acting as regent since the death of his father, Robert Duke of Albany in 1420. King James had Walter, Alexander and finally Murdoch arrested and executed at Stirling Castle.
Shortly after the death of his father, James V was crowned King of Scotland at Stirling Castle.
Thousands of Scots gathered near the town of Musselburgh, just to the east of Edinburgh. They faced an English army led by the Duke of Somerset. The Scots had a good position on the battle field but wasted it when they attacked. The Scots were heavily defeated. The defeat at Pinkie Cleugh was a threat to Mary, Queen of Scots, and so she was secretly moved from Stirling Castle to the Augustinian Inchmahome Priory located on an island on lake Menteith.
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