Innocent (III, Pope)

1198   Innocent III becomes Pope
1199 Feb  Teutonic Knights
 The Order of the Teutonic Knights is approved by Pope Innocent III.
1206 Dec  The Pope chooses Stephen Langton for Canterbury
 Although the monks of Canterbury wanted their own sub-prior for the post of Archbishop and King John wanted John de Gray, Pope Innocent III chose Stephen Langton. Langton was originally from Lincolnshire but after teaching in Paris had moved to Rome where he had become a Cardinal. The monks of Canterbury accepted the Pope's decision and voted Langton in as the new Archbishop. King John did not agree.[1]

Episode: Excommunication of King John  
1207   Stephen Langton becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 Stephen Langton was chosen as Archbishop of Canterbury by Pope Innocent III.[2]

Episode: Excommunication of King John  
1209 Nov  John excommunicated by the Pope
 King John is excommunicated by Pope Innocent III.

Episode: Excommunication of King John  
1211 Summer  Excommunication served
 In Northampton the Papal legate Pandulf served King John with his excommunication ordered by the Pope. For John this was a serious blow to his ability to rule the country as it absolved the King's subjects from their oaths of allegiance, gave the Barons reason to revolt and allowed the King of France to invade England to remove John from power.[1]

Episode: Excommunication of King John  
1212 Nov  John accepts Pope's demands
 Taking the advice of William Marshal John accepted the demands of the Pope and that Stephen Langton should become Archbishop. A peace mission was also sent to the Pope.[1]

Episode: Excommunication of King John  
1213 Jul 20  Excommunication lifted
 When King John agreed to meet Stephen Langton at Winchester he was absolved from excommunication.[1]

Episode: Excommunication of King John  
 Sep 26  Pope's envoy arrives in England
 Cardinal Nicholas De Romanis arrived in England to prepare for the settlement of the Interdict. John's punishment was to pay 100,000 marks to compensate the church for the losses he had caused it.[1]

Episode: Excommunication of King John  
1214 Jun 29  Interdict lifted
 At St. Paul's Cathedral, in London, the Interdict was finally lifted.[1]

Episode: Excommunication of King John  
1215 Mar 4  John takes oath for Crusade
 Hoping to gain the support of the Pope against the Barons, John took the oath to go on Crusade.[1] 
 Apr 1  Pope sides with John
 Pope Innocent III sent a letter to the Barons asking them to halt their actions against John.[1] 
 Aug 24  The Magna Carta is annulled
 Pope Innocent III annulled the Magna Carta freeing King John from its limitations. The Pope annulled the charter on the grounds that the King only signed it because he was forced to and that the document was illegal. The Pope was prepared to support John against the rebel barons because he wanted him to take a key role in a new crusade.

Episode: The First Barons' War  
 Sep 13  King John appeals to the Pope
 In a letter dated 13 September 1215, King John sought help from Pope Innocent III in his fight against the barons. In the letter, written while the King stayed at Dover Castle, John stated that he believed the defence of England was ultimately the responsibility of God and the Pope. Pope Innocent III agreed and declared that the Magna Carta should be annulled.

Episode: The First Barons' War  
1216 Jul 18  Honorius III elected as the new Pope
 Pope Innocent III died on July 16 and two days later in Rome the cardinals elected Honorius III as the Pope. 

Isabella (of Castile, Wife of Ferdinand II)

sabella was the wife of Ferdinand, King of Aragon, and the mother of Catherine of Aragon who would marry Henry VIII.
1492 Apr 17  Columbus signs agreement
 Christopher Columbus signed an agreement with Ferdinand and Isabella, the King and Queen of Spain, He specified that he should be given ten percent of any materials that he found on his explorations, for example spices, gems, gold and silver. He also specified that he would fund one eighth of the expedition if in return he received an eighth of the profits. He also wanted to be made Viceroy of all lands that he discovered.[3]

Episode: The Great Explorers  
Early Modern Period (1500-1800)
1504 Nov  Death of Isabella of Castile
 Isabella of Castile died.