Born: 1214 Died: 1294
Baldwin (I, King of Jerusalem)
Born: circa 1058 Died: 1118
Godfrey of Bouillon died just a year after the crusaders had captured Jerusalem. Agreeing who should succeed Godfrey as ruler of Jerusalem was not easy. The head of the Church in Jerusalem, Dagobert of Pisa, claimed that the Church itself should rule and as he was its representative he should have the job. Godfrey's brother, Baldwin of Edessa, had other ideas and travelled to Jerusalem with an army to claim the throne.
Supported by an army of over a thousand men, Baldwin claimed the throne of Jerusalem. Baldwin of Edessa was Godfrey's brother and he claimed the throne as his heritage. Baldwin was crowned on Christmas Day at Bethlehem.
King Baldwin I captured the important port of Acre on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean. The port was an important supply route for Jerusalem.
Baldwin II became King of Jerusalem following in his cousin's footsteps.
Baldwin (II, King of Jerusalem)
Baldwin, the king of Jerusalem, was captured by Balak of Aleppo. To save the situation the Venetians were asked to help and so Doge Michiel lifted the siege of Corfu and took his fleet to Acre, arriving at the port in May.
King Baldwin of Jerusalem died and Fulk V, who had married the King's daughter Melisende, became the King of Jerusalem.
Baldwin (III, King of Jerusalem 1143-1162)
Born: circa 1131 Died: 10 February 1162
When his father Fulk died, Baldwin became king of Jerusalem. But at only 13 years of age Baldwin was too young to rule unaided. He was made co-ruler of the Crusader state along side his mother Melisende.
Baldwin III was old enough to rule Jerusalem unaided and demanded that the control he shared with his mother was ended. This split the Crusader state and led to civil war.
Baldwin, the king of Jerusalem died. He was succeeded by his brother Amalric.
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Baldwin (III, King of Jerusalem 1143-1162) (b.1131 - d.1162)
The Kentish section of the Revolt reached Maidstone where they were joined by Wat Tyler who became their leader. They released John Ball from the church prison.
Balliol, Edward (King of Scotland 1332)
Born: 1283 Died: 1364
Edward Balliol arrived in London and asked for men and money for Edward's French war.
King Robert the first of Scotland died and was followed by David the second. David was only 5 years old and so Edward Balliol claimed his right to the throne being the son of John who was king of Scotland from 1292 to 1296.
Edward Balliol took a small army of men, including archers, into Scotland to take back the Scottish throne.
With help from English archers Edward Balliol forwarded his right to the Scottish throne by defeating the Scots fighting for the young King David II at Dupplin Moor. Many Scots were killed in the batlle including the Earl of Mar and King David's uncle Lord Robert Bruce.
Edward Balliol was crowned king of Scotland at Scone but was quickly forced over the border back to England prompting Edward III's assaults.
Edward Balliol's fortunes changed when he was overthrown and had to flee to England.
Montagu, an English Baron, took control of the Isle of Man from Scotland. From that time the island has been associated with England.
Edward Balliol granted England control of parts of southern Scotland.
Edward III, assisted by Balliol, moved up through Scotland. There was a chance that the French would invade while the King was in the North as Philippe VI had sent ships to help the Scottish cause.
Edward Balliol was forced to leave Scotland when David II returned from France to claim the Scottish throne.
After the defeat of David II of Scotland at Neville's Cross Edward Balliol had attempted to claim the Scottish throne but eventually decided to surrender his title as King of the Scots to Edward III and accept a pension in return.
Barbarossa, Frederick (Emperor)
Born: circa 1122 Died: 10 June 1190
At Mainz Cathedral, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa took the Cross showing his intention to travel to the Holy Land.
In early May 1189, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa garthered his army at Ratisbon (now called Regensburg in Bavaria, Germany). He had ensured that his lands were safe while he was away on crusade and left his eldest son Henry in charge of the country.
The large army of German crusaders marched towards Constantinople on the way to the Holy Land. But Isaac II, the Byzantine Emperor, had sided with Saladin and was attempting the stop them by attacking the crusaders. But the German army was too strong and they captured Adrianople. A peace treaty was signed by Isaac and Frederick of Germany, the crusaders' leader, that ensured the Germans were given supplies and free passage through to the Holy Land.
Beauchamp, Margaret (of Bletsoe)
Beauchamp, Thomas (12th earl of Warwick)
Born: 1339 Died: 1401
Edward I was responsible for the construction of the Beauchamp Tower at the Tower of London on the western side of the curtain wall. It got its name later on in 1397 when Thomas Beauchamp was imprisoned there by Richard II. The three storey tower was large enough to hold not only the captive, but members of his household as well. It has been used to hold other important prisoners since.
Forces belonging to the Lords Appellant defeated forces led by Robert de Vere, the favourite of Richard II. The battle took place at Radcot Bridge, a bridge over the River Thames at Oxfordshire. Robert de Vere managed to escape by swimming across the Thames and then fleeing over seas. This led to King Richard temporarily being deposed.
The Yorkists led by King Edward IV and his brother Richard Duke of Gloucester met the Lancastrians at Tewkesbury. Richard was able to outflank the Lancastrians led by Edmund Beaufort, the self-proclaimed Duke of Somerset. Once Somerset's men had been dealt with, Richard attacked the rear of the Lancastrian line which broke apart and fled. Many of the Lancastrian leaders were caught and killed including Edward the Prince of Wales. Margaret of Anjou, the wife of King Henry VI, was also captured.
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Beaufort, Edmund ( - d.1471)
Beaufort, Henry (3rd Duke of Somerset)
The Battle of Towton was the bloodiest battle of the Wars of the Roses and was fought in a snowstorm at Towton in Yorkshire. Both the Lancastrian and Yorkist armies were large having possibly 40,000 men each. The battle lasted many hours until the Lancastrians's line was broken. Fleeing into a river many of the Lancastrians were drowned due to their heavy armour and the rest were killed by the pursuing Yorkists.
An embassy of several Lancastrians, including the Duke of Somerset, travelled to France and the court of Charles VII to ask for men and a loan of money to continue the fight against the Yorkists. But the death of Charles on the 22nd put an end to their plans. Their situation became serious when they were arrested. The new French King, Louis XI, at this stage of the Wars of the Roses was a Yorkist supporter.
Henry Beaufort, Duke of Somerset and Lancastrian supporters rebelled against Edward and used Bamburgh Castle as a base.
The Nevilles defeated the last of the Lancastrian forces near Hexham and executed the rebels including Henry Beaufort the Duke of Somerset. In recognition of their contribution to the security of his reign Edward IV gave John Neville, Lord Montagu, the title of Earl of Northumberland and George Neville became the Archbishop of York.
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Beaufort, Henry (3rd Duke of Somerset) ( - d.1464)
Beaufort, Henry (Cardinal-Bishop of Winchester)
Born: circa 1376 Died: 1447
Henry VI became king of England upon the death of his father. Henry was less than one year old when his father died and so England was governed by a number of protectors. These included Henry V's brothers, John Duke of Bedford and Humphrey Duke of Gloucester, along with Henry Beaufort the bishop of Winchester.
Henry was crowned King of France at Notre Dame in Paris by Cardinal Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester.
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Beaufort, Henry (Cardinal-Bishop of Winchester) (b.1376 - d.1447)
Beaufort, Henry (Duke of Somerset)
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Beaufort, Henry (Duke of Somerset) ( - d.1418)
Beaufort, Lady Margaret
Born: 1443 Died: 1509
Edmund Tudor married Margaret Beaufort, the heiress of the Duke of Somerset. Margaret was only twelve years old. Edmund Tudor and Margaret Beaufort were the parents of Henry Tudor, the future King of England, Henry VII.
After the death of Edmund Tudor, his brother, Jasper Tudor Earl of Pembroke, moved Margaret Beaufort to Pembroke Castle. Margaret was the wife of Edmund Tudor and expecting their first child, Henry Tudor, the future King of England.
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Beaufort, Lady Margaret (b.1443 - d.1509)
+Tudor, Edmund (Earl of Richmond) ( - d.1456) =Henry (VII, King of England 1485-1509) (b.1457 - d.1509) +Elizabeth (of York) ( - d.1503) =Arthur (Prince of Wales) (b.1486 - d.1502) | +Catherine (of Aragon) (b.1485 - d.1536) =Margaret (Tudor, Daughter of Henry VII) (b.1489 - d.1541) | +James (IV King of Scotland 1488-1513) (b.1473 - d.1513) | | =James (V, King of Scotland 1513-1542) (b.1512 - d.1542) | +Douglas, Archibald (Earl of Angus) ( - d.1557) | =Douglas, Margaret ( - d.1578) =Henry (VIII, King of England 1509-1547) (b.1491 - d.1547) | +Catherine (of Aragon) (b.1485 - d.1536) | | =Mary (I, Queen of England 1553-1558, Bloody Mary, Mary Tudor) (b.1516 - d.1558) | +Boleyn, Anne ( - ex.1536) | | =Elizabeth (I, Queen of England 1558-1603) (b.1533 - d.1603) | +Seymour, Jane ( - d.1537) | | =Edward (VI, King of England 1547-1553) (b.1537 - d.1553) | +Anne (of Cleves) (b.1515 - d.1557) | +Howard, Catherine ( - ex.1542) | +Parr, Catherine =Mary (Tudor, Queen of France) (b.1495 - d.1533) +Louis (XII, King of France) ( - d.1515) +Brandon, Charles (Duke of Suffolk) (b.1485 - d.1545) =Frances (Lady) =Clifford, Eleanor (Lady) ( - d.1547)
Beaufort, Thomas (Duke of Exeter)
A French fleet laid siege to Harfleur, the French port captured by Henry V, and attempted to get it back. Harfleur was defended by Thomas Beaufort, the earl of Exeter.
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Beaufort, Thomas (Duke of Exeter) ( - d.1426)
Benedict (XII, Pope)
Two cardinals, Peter Gomez and Bertrand of Montfavence, were sent by Pope Benedict XII to Europe to try and prevent Edward III of England and Philipe VI of France going to war.
Berengaria (of Navarre, Queen of England)
Born: circa 1165 Died: 1230
Richard took time to marry Berengaria at Limassol.
A motte with a wooden tower was probably the first type of castle built by the Normans on the site. Hugh Bigod owned Framlingham at the time.
King Henry II had confiscated Framlingham Castle from the rebellious Earl Hugh Bigod. But Hugh raised the money required to buy back the castle. Henry built the castle at Orford, a few miles to teh south, to keep Hugh under control.
King Henry II, had the castle at Orford built in Norfolk between 1166 and 1172, to counter the threats of Hugh Bigod and to confront his castle fortress at Framlingham.
The baronial rebellion against Henry II. One of it leaders was Hugh Bigod. (Need to investigate)
Blanche (of Lancaster)
John of Gaunt married Blanche, the daughter of Henry, Duke of Lancaster. Henry owned Kenilworth Castle and when he died (?) John became Duke of Lancaster and took ownership of the castle. Gaunt rebuilt the hall and constructed new grand apartments.
Henry was born at Bolingbroke Castle in Lincolnshire. He would become King Henry IV of England.
Bohemund (I, Prince of Antioch 1099-1111)
Born: circa 1050 Died: 1111
King Richard I met Guy of Lusignan (King of Jerusalem), Geoffrey (Richard's brother), Bohemund (Prince of Antioch), Raymond (Count of Tripoli), Humphrey of Toron and other knights to discuss the attempt by Philippe II of France to replace Guy of Lusignan with Conrad of Montferrat as the King of Jerusalem.
Boniface (VIII, Pope)
Died: 11 October 1303
Pope Boniface VIII made King Louis IX of France a saint of the Church twenty seven years after his death whilst on crusade.
Boniface, the Pope, died a few weeks after being held captive by supporters of the French King over taxation disputes.
Brandon, Charles (Duke of Suffolk)
Born: 1485 Died: 1545
Princess Mary ran away with Charles Brandon after the death of Louis XII. They were secretly married but caught and forced to pay a fine.
Princess Mary, the younger sister of Henry VIII, married Charles Brandon, the Duke of Suffolk at Greenwich. Henry VIII gave full consent to the marriage.
Stirling castle was still under the control of English forces but was under siege from the Scots led by Edward Bruce. Bruce and the English commander, Sir Philippe de Mowbray, came to an agreement that if English forces had not reached the castle by midsummer 1314, Mowbray would surrender the castle to the Scots. Bruce even let Mowbray leave the castle to inform the English king of the agreement.
Edward Bruce landed in Ireland in an attempt to become King of Ireland.
Edward Bruce was defeated and killed at the Battle of Faughart by the English led by John de Birmingham.
Bruce, Robert (Earl of Carrick, 6th Lord of Annandale)
Born: 1243 Died: 1304
Family Tree Details
Bruce, Robert (Earl of Carrick, 6th Lord of Annandale) (b.1243 - d.1304)
+Marjorie (of Carrick) =Bruce, Robert (the Bruce, I, King of the Scots 1306-1329) (b.1274 - d.1329) +Isabella (Wife of Robert I of Scotland) | =Marjorie (Daughter of Robert I, the Bruce) ( - d.1316) | +Walter (6th High Steward) ( - d.1325) | =Robert (II, King of the Scots 1371-1390) ( - d.1390) +Elizabeth (2nd wife of Robert I of Scotland) =David (II, King of the Scots 1329-1371) (b.1324 - d.1371) | +Joan (of the Tower) (b.1321 - d.1362) =Margaret (Daughter of Robert I, the Bruce) =Matilda (Daughter of Robert I, the Bruce)
Selection of references used:
TimeRef UK Castles Mobile App for Android Phone
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A Medieval Mystery
There appear to be some strange connections between the fourteenth century Old Wardour Castle and ancient stone circle Stonehenge.
Old Wardour Castle appears to be aligned to ancient sites in the Stonehenge landscape.
Stonehenge is aligned to the Summer Solstice. Old Wardour has a very similar alignment.
Could the builders of Old Wardour used mesaurements from Stonehenge to layout the geometrical keep?