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Transport yourself back up to a thousand years and explore historical buildings as they may have appeared in the past.
1400 .. 1424
1400 .. 1424
Please note that the TimeRef website is currently being redesigned.
Henry Yeveley dies.
Henry Yeveley, one of the greatest late medieval architects died in 1400. His work on Canterbury Cathedral was continued by his pupil Stephen Lote.
Chapter House at Canterbury building work
Chapter House at Canterbury building work by Stephen Lote.
York Minster East Window
Building work on the East Window of York Minster took place until 1405.
Tower built at Carlisle
Construction of the tower and north transept at Carlisle Cathedral was begun in 1400 and completed in 1419.
A plot to kill the new King
Supporters of Richard II planned to attack King Henry IV during a tournament held over Christmas at Windsor Castle. The plot was betrayed by Edward, Earl of Rutland, son of the Duke of York. Henry and his family escaped to London, and by the time the King returned to Windsor with an army, the rebels had been dealt with by local people.
Death of Richard II
King Richard II died some time between the 9th and 17th of February 1400 while being imprisoned at Pontefract Castle. The cause of his death is not known. He died at the age of 33.
Henry invades Scotland
To stop the Scots raiding the northern borders of England, Henry took an army into Scotland. The Scottish king Robert III did not concede defeat and Henry had to resort to minor raids of his own without any real outcome for either side.
Glyndwr's revolt starts
What started as a land dispute between Owain Glyndwr, a wealthy land owner in Wales and his rival Lord Grey of Rutin quickly escalated into a revolt when the English King Henry IV sided with Rutin and awarded him the land.
Glyndwr proclaimed Prince of Wales
Glyndwr's revolt spread and he proclaimed himself the Prince of Wales. He was joined by the Tudor brothers from Anglesey and began guerrilla warfare against the English in the North of Wales and the Marcher Lords in the centre.
Henry fights back against Glyndwr
King Henry IV moved into North Wales to try and stop the rebellion of Owain Glyndwr, but he was not able to deal with the Welsh rebels, who were more skilled at fighting in the terrain.
King Henry IV gave his son Prince Henry, the future Henry V, the task of defeating Glyndwr in North Wales. As the boy was only 13 years old, Hotspur a knight and jouster of importance was given the role of guardian over the Prince. Hotspur was the son of Henry Percy the Earl of Northumberland.
De heretico comburendo
The statute called De heretico comburendo was passed by Henry IV allowing heretics to be burnt at the stake. It was forbidden for anyone to translate the Bible into English and illegal to own a copy.
William Sawtrey is the first Lollard to be burned at the stake
William Sawtrey was a follower of John Wycliffe.
After accusing the king of not paying his army, Hotspur resigned his guardianship of the king's son in North Wales and he left to resume fighting the Scots.
The king assembled an army at Shrewsbury Castle in preparation to fight Owain Glyndwr.
Death of David Stewart
David, the eldest son of Robert III, King of Scotland, was arrested by his uncle, Robert the duke of Albany and locked up in Falkland Palace where he died in 1402. This led to James I becoming the next king of Scotland.
Battle of Pilleth
Edmund Mortimer's army met Owain Glyndwr at Pilleth near Whitton in central Wales. Mortimer's army was badly defeated and Mortimer was captured. Glyndwr offered to release Mortimer for a large ransom, but Henry IV refused to pay.
Battle of Homildon Hill
The armies of the Percies and the Scots met at Homildon Hill near Wooler in Northumberland. The Scots were defeated and the Scots' leader the Earl of Douglas was captured. Henry IV wanted Douglas handed over but Hotspur refused. Hotspur was angry with the English king who had refused to pay a ransom for Edmund Mortimer who had been captured by Owain Glyndwr and who was a friend of Hotspur's.
The Percies, led by the Earl of Northumberland and Hotspur announced their intent to revolt against Henry IV. They even promised to free the Scots they had captured at the battle of Homildon if the Scots assisted in the revolt. The plan was to join forces with Owain Glyndwr and support the claim of the young Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl of March to the English throne.
Prince Henry in command
Prince Henry, now sixteen, took control of this army in Wales. He took his troops looking for Owain Glyndwr but could not find him and so burnt villages and killed any prisoners that were taken. Henry's main problem, like Hotspur's before him was that the King was not providing enough money to pay the English troops.
Abergavenny attacked by Glyndwr
The castle at Abergavenny was attacked and burnt by Owain Glyndwr.
Llansteffan Castle attacked by Glyndwr
The Norman Llansteffan Castle was attacked by Owain Glyndwr. Glyndwr may have held the castle for a short time until it was retaken by Sir John Penress (Pennes).
Kidwelly Castle attacked
Owain Glyndwr's forces attacked Kidwelly Castle managing to set fire to the unfinished gatehouse but did not capture the castle.
Weobley Castle attacked
Owain Glyndwr attacked and badly damaged Weobley Castle.
Battle of Shrewsbury
Henry IV managed to reach Shrewsbury just before Hotspur arrived and the rebel army had to camp outside the town to the north. The battle lasted all day but it ended when Hotspur was killed.
Earl of Northumberland surrenders
Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland (Hotspur's father) had not managed to reach Shrewsbury in time to save his son. The Earl surrendered to the King, who accepted and showed the Earl mercy.
Construction work began on the north and south cloisters of Worcester Cathedral and continued until 1432.
Harlech Castle siege
The Welsh captured Harlech Castle and the fortress became the base for Owain Glyndwr's revolt.
Cardiff sacked by Glyndwr
Owain Glyndwr attacked and captured the town of Cardiff and its castle.
Aberystwyth falls to the Welsh
Owain Glyndwr captured the town of Aberystwyth and its castle after a lengthy blockade.
Bangor Cathedral burnt by rebels
Bangor Cathedral was captured by Owain Glyndwr after a siege and destroyed by fire.
Innocent VII becomes Pope
Owain Glyndwr called a Parliament where he declared himself to be the true 'Prince of Wales'. Embassies from France and Scotland attended the meeting and gave promises to support Glyndwr's plans to overthrow Henry IV.
Death of William of Wykeham
William of Wykeham the Bishop of Winchester died in this year. He was replaced by Henry Beaufort.
Owain Glyndwr, Edmund Mortimer and the Earl of Northumberland combine forces and share the same goal of removing Henry IV. They agreed to divide England and Wales in three, Owain taking Wales and the west of England, the Earl to take the north of England and the north Midlands. Mortimer could have the rest.
Battles of Grosmont and Usk
English forces fought and defeated Welsh forces in two battles at Grosmont and Usk. Sir John Talbot defeated Glyndwr at Grosmont and Prince Henry forced the Welsh to flee at Usk. Glyndwr's eldest son was captured at Usk and sent to the Tower of London where he died.
Richard Scrope colluded with the Earl of Northumberland to overthrow Henry IV. Scrope was the Archbishop of York.
The Archbishop's revolt was crushed with the aid of the Nevilles and the king had him executed.
Robert III of Scotland had fled from the Duke of Albany to Rothesay Castle and had attempted to send his son James to France. English pirates intercepted James and he was sent to London and imprisoned.
James I of Scotland
With the death of Robert III, King of the Scots, James I became the new King of Scotland but as he was imprisoned by the English, his uncle Robert, Duke of Albany, acted as Regent until the release of James in 1424.
Robert III dies
Robert III, King of Scotland died at Rothesay Castle. His son James, although the rightful heir to the Scottish throne, was not crowned until 1424.
Building work on the central tower of York Minster took place until 1423.
Prince Henry besieges Aberystwyth
Prince Henry laid siege to the castle at Aberystwyth in an attempt to remove the Welsh who had captured it in 1404.
Harlech Castle siege
The English besiege the Welsh in Harlech Castle.
The plague kills thousands
An outburst of plague occurred sometime between 1405 and 1407 and the pestilence was so great that, according to the St. Albans chronicler, in London thirty thousand men and women were reported to have died in a short space of time. Henry IV is thought to have left London to wait for the plague to die out.
Located at the heart of the City of London, the Guildhall was built by the powerful merchants of London to rival the buildings of royalty. In the Guildhall the merchants held their courts and passed their laws and regulations.
Birth of Richard of York
Richard, Duke of York, was born on the 21st of September. His father was Richard, Earl of Cambridge, and his mother was Anne Mortimer.
Henry IV died in the Palace of Westminster. The mysterious disease he had suffered from for many years had taken its toll. Prince Henry accepted the crown and claimed it. The Earl of March now old enough to rule still had a very good claim of his own.
Henry V crowned
Henry V was crowned at Westminster Abbey. The ceremony was marked by a very bad snow storm but people were unable to decide if this was a bad omen or a good one.
Sir John Oldcastle arrested
As the leader of the Lollards, the friend of the King was arrested and sent to the Tower of London.
Richard II's body moved
In an act of respect to Richard II, Henry had the dead king's body moved to its proper resting place in Westminster Abbey.
Alien priories were those in England who were dependant on usually French mother houses. During the Hundred Years War these priories were seen as a security risk. They also were a means of transferring much needed English money to France. A law was passed confiscating these priories. Many were transferred over to other religious orders.
A meeting of the Lollards was stormed by the King's troops and many were arrested and subsequently put to death. Their leader, Sir John Oldcastle, managed to escape capture.
Parliament at Leicester
Parliament agreed to give Henry V the money to invade France. Those that opposed the plans included Earl Marshal, Ralph Neville, who believed there was a better chance of subduing Scotland than France.
Henry claims French territories
France was in the midst of a civil war between the Burgundians and the Armagnacs. Charles VI, the king of France, had joined the Armagnacs. Henry came in on the side of the Burgundians and saw the opportunity to reclaim lost lands in France. Henry's plan was to invade France but he needed a good reason. He gave the French king a list of demands including the French throne, the restoration of the Angevin empire and the hand of the king's daughter in marriage. If the demands could not be met Henry could go to war.
Before this year the exit through the London wall to the Moorfields area was through a small postern gate originally built by the Romans. A postern is a small gateway located in a secluded position where residents of the castle could escape in times of siege to either flee or attack the besiegers. It was decided to build a proper gate at the location.
Preparations for war with France
As negotiations were underway in France, England was preparing for the invasion of France.
Plot to overthrow the King
Led by Richard Earl of Cambridge, Henry's cousin, a plot to assassinate the King and replace him with the Earl of March who was the true heir to the throne was hatched. The revolt brought together all the old enemies of Henry including Lord Scrope (Archbishop Scrope's nephew) and the Lollards. The Earl of March whose loyalties were with the king informed Henry of the plot the night before and the rebels were arrested. Several were executed.
Henry sails for France
Preparations for war were complete and Henry's army set sail from Southampton for the French coast.
English fleets lands in Normandy
Henry's army landed on the north bank of the Seine estuary near to the town of Harfleur (now part of Le Havre). Henry organised the siege of the town and waited for it to fall.
Harfleur falls to the English
The town held out for five weeks in which time the English soldiers were starting to suffer from disease caught from their camps in the marshes. The people in the town were not doing much better and when it was clear that the town was not going to be rescued, the citizens surrendered. Henry treated the towns people with respect and let them leave.
The march to Calais
Henry's plans for invading France had been dented by the time it took to capture Harfleur and the affect of disease on his men. He decided to move his men to Calais which was under English control.
Henry crosses the Somme
Henry's plan was to get across the Somme at its estuary where it was relatively easy to cross but he received word that the crossing was being guarded by the French. Henry had no other choice but to follow the west bank of the Somme south into French territory to find a suitable crossing point. His men were short of food as Henry had told them to take only a few day's supplies expecting them to reach Calais. Henry finally found a crossing point that was unguarded and his army crossed the Somme.
The Battle of Agincourt
The English army met the French army near the town of Agincourt. Although the English were outnumbered three to one, Henry used the local terrain to his advantage. The French cavalry were hit heavily by the English archers and French knights got bogged down in the wet fields. The French were defeated and Henry ordered that no prisoners should be taken apart from the extremely important knights who could be ransomed. The death toll amongst the French nobility was high.
Henry returns to England
After a few weeks recovering in Calais from their ordeal, Henry and the English army returned to England to a hero's welcome.
A French fleet laid siege to Harfleur, the French port captured by Henry V, and attempted to get it back. Harfleur was defended by Thomas Beaufort, the earl of Exeter.
Katla Volcano Eruption
Eruption of the large Icelandic volcano.
An English fleet commanded by John Duke of Bedford attacked and defeated the French blockading the mouth of the Seine who were preventing supplies reaching the English held town of Harfleur. Bedford was the king's brother.
Henry, the Navigator, was a Portuguese prince who set up a school for sea exploration when he became governor of an area in the south of Portugal. His time as governor is seen a s the start of Portugal's important sea exploration tradition.
Rouen surrenders to Henry
The city of Rouen in Normandy surrendered to the English King after a siege of seven months.
In the Treaty of Troyes King Charles VI of France agreed that after his death King Henry V of England and his heirs would become the rulers of France. It was also agreed that the French king's daughter, Catherine of Valois would marry Henry.
The marriage of King Henry V and Catherine, the daughter of Charles VI king of France, took place and sealed the Treaty of Troyes.
The French town of Meaux finally fell to the English besiegers. This being Henry's last great victory against the French.
Henry V dies
King Henry V had fallen ill during the previous winter and had not recovered during the spring and summer. He died at the age of 34 in Bios de Vincennes in France on August 31st and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Henry VI becomes king
Henry VI became king of England upon the death of his father. Henry was less than one year old when his father died and so England was governed by a number of protectors. These included Henry V's brothers, John Duke of Bedford and Humphrey Duke of Gloucester, along with Henry Beaufort the bishop of Winchester.
Charles VI of France dies
Charles VI of France died and was buried in the Saint Denis Basilica. Henry VI of England was proclaimed king of France and John Duke of Bedford was appointed regent.
At the Treaty of Durham, James I of Scotland was released from his captivity allowing him to return to Scotland and claim the throne. Note: This appears to be the second treaty allowing his release, so need to understand why there were two,
James I crowned
James I, King of Scotland was crowned at Scone Abbey.