1200

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Rochester Cathedral Presbytery and Choir 
Building work on eastern area of the Cathedral began in around 1200 and continued until 1227.

Lincoln Cathedral Great transept 
Work began on the Lincoln Cathedral's main West transept, or Great transept in 1200.

Fire destroys the cathedral at Rouen 
The early cathedral at Rouen in France was badly damaged by a fire that destroyed other churches and parts of the city as well.

John divorces Isabella of Gloucester 
King John had been married to Isabella of Gloucester for several years but they had no children. When John became king he quickly obtained a divorce leaving himself free to arrange a marriage that would give him political gain. Within the year he would marry Isabella of Angouleme, the daughter of an important baron in Aquitaine.

Jan 2  -  Annular Eclipse of the moon 
An eclipse of the moon occurred at around midnight. (Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, NASA's GSFC)

May 22  -  Philippe and John sign a treaty 
At le Goulet on the River Seine Philippe II signed a peace treaty with John providing two years of peace. The agreement recognised John as overlord of most of the English owned lands in France, but John had to give Philippe the lands of Norman Vexin and Evreux and a large sum of money.

Aug 24  -  John marries Isabella of Angouleme 
Eager to make peace with the count of Angouleme, John marries his only daughter, Isabella. Isabella was engaged to Hugh of Lusignan, a family which John was worried about due to their power and influence and the fact that an alliance between Angouleme and Lusignan would be a danger to him. Isabella was twelve or thirteen.

Sep 8  -  John and Isabella are crowned 
John and Isabella returned to England in late September and were both crowned at Westminster Abbey.

Nov 22  -  William does homage to John 
During a tour of the Midlands, John received homage from William 'the Lyon', King of Scotland at Lincoln. William was looking to move into the areas of Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmoreland. John on the other hand ensured that those areas were controlled by Barons he could trust.

1201

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Banbury Castle strengthened 
Work on improving Banbury Castle continued between 1201 and 1207.

Dunkeswell Abbey founded 
This Cistercian abbey in Devon was founded by William Brewer.

Valle Crucis Abbey founded 
The abbey in North Wales was founded in 1201 by Madog ap Gruffuud Maelor.

Kidwelly Castle captured by the Normans 
The Normans recaptured the castle at Kidwelly in around 1201, when Meredith, the son of Lord Rhys, was killed by the garrison of the castle.

May  -  John sails to Normandy 
In France the Lusignans were causing problems still angry over John's marriage to Isabella. John ordered that an army should assemble at Portsmouth. Instead of taking the assembled army, John used the money they had to hire mercenaries and took them.

Jun  -  Philippe entertains John in Paris 
Even though Philippe was hearing complaints from the Lusignans about John's treatment towards them, he was not willing to go against John at this time and entertained him in Paris.

Jun  -  Storms do much damage 
Severe thunderstorms and floods during the summer affected England.

1202

Events occurring at some time during this year 
The Fourth Crusade 
The Fourth Crusade.

Winchester Cathedral Retrochoir and Lady Chapel 
Work began on the retrochoir (area to the east of the presbytery) and the Lady Chapel of Winchester Cathedral. Until 1235.

Worcester Cathedral fire 
The devastating fire in this year caused so much damage that the building needed to be rebuilt.

Spring  -  Philippe sides with the Lusignans 
John charged the Lusignans with treason. The Lusignans went to Philippe for help and Philippe demanded to see John in Paris and for John to surrender several castles in good faith.

Apr 28  -  John fails to attend a summons to Philippe's court 
Failing to attend the court of Philippe II, John was declared to be a rebel and to have forfeited the areas of Aquitaine, Poitou and Anjou. Philippe tried to mediate in the problems between John and the Lusignans but was ignored by John. The lands were given to Arthur of Brittany. Philippe kept Normandy for himself.

Jul  -  Arthur knighted 
Philippe of France knights Arthur of Britanny.

Aug 1  -  Battle of Mirabeau 
Arthur of Brittany and the Lusignans had laid siege to Mirabeau Castle trapping Eleanor of Aquitaine inside. King John launched a rescue mission to free her. Arthur was captured by William de Braose and was handed over to King John. Many other important knights were also captured and it was an important and famous victory for the English king. Those that were captured were treated badly by King John. He could have ransomed them for their freedom and made a lot of money, instead he kept them prisoner locked in dungeons. Some he had shipped to England and imprisoned. Arthur was sent to the dungeon in the castle at Falaise in Normandy.

1203

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Beaulieu Abbey founded 
Founded by King John who wanted to become an object of prayer by the Cistercian order. The abbey was built on the site of a hunting lodge in the New Forest and was colonised by monks directly from Citeaux.

Apr 3  -  Arthur is murdered 
Arthur was moved to Rouen from Falaise where he was being held. There it is said that John killed Arthur and dumped his weighted-down body in the Seine. The body was discovered and later buried.

1204

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Goodrich given to William Marshal 
King John gave Goodrich castle to William Marshal on his marriage to the heiress of the earldom of Pembroke.

William Marshall captures Cilgerran 
William Marshall captured the Welsh castle at Cilgerran in Pembrokeshire from the Welsh.

Dublin Castle construction started 
King John ordered the construction of a castle at Dublin.

Spring  -  Peace negotiations with France 
After losing Normandy to the French, John sent an embassy to France to negotiate with Philippe. In the party that went from England were Hubert Walter and William Marshal. The negotiations failed due to Philippe's demands.

Apr 1  -  Death of Eleanor of Aquitaine 
Eleanor, Henry II's wife and John's mother died.

Jun  -  Normandy is taken by Philippe 
Philippe II, King of France won control of Rouen, the capital of Normandy and Normandy itself. John still had control of Aquitaine.

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1205

Jan  -  River Thames freezes 
The winter of 1204/05 was so cold that the River Thames froze over and the cold spell lasted until March.

Feb  -  Philippe plans invasion 
Philippe II of France held a meeting in Normandy to discuss invading England. This forced John to abandon his own plans of invading Normandy as he could not risk moving his army abroad when the French were about to attack. The planned French invasion never materialised.

Jun  -  John prepares invasion 
Worried by rumours of an invasion from Philippe of France, led by heirs of king Stephen, John prepared an invasion fleet of his own. But the barons refused to cross the Channel and attack Normandy and so the fleet was disbanded.

Summer  -  More castles fall to the French 
The castles at Chinon and Loches both fell to the French as Philippe strengthened his position. Again William Marshall travelled to see Philippe to agree peace terms, but his attempts were destroyed by Hubert Walter who sent a secret letter to Philippe telling him not to accept William Marshal's promise that John would do homage to Philippe. (What's going on here?)

Jul 13  -  Hubert Walter dies 
Hubert Walter the Archbishop of Canterbury and King John's most important advisor died.

Dec  -  John forces election of De Gray 
When Hubert Walter died a dispute began between King John and the monks of Canterbury over who should become the new Archbishop of Canterbury. King John wanted John de Grey, Bishop of Norwich, to have the position but the monks wanted their sub-prior, Reginald. The matter was delayed until December when a mission sent to Rome could consult the Pope. Reginald himself went as part of the mission and stated that he had been elected by the monks. When King John heard of this he demanded that De Gray should be elected and the monks dutifully did.

1206

Jun  -  John defends Aquitaine 
After Philippe failed to invade England the year earlier, John took to opportunity to land an army at La Rochelle to defend his interests in Aquitaine which was his from his inheritance from Eleanor of Aquitaine, John's mother. John moved his army north and took back some of the lands he had lost to Philippe.

Oct 26  -  Philippe and John reach a truce 
A two year truce is agreed between the Kings of England and France.

Dec  -  The Pope chooses Stephen Langton for Canterbury 
Although the monks of Canterbury wanted their own sub-prior for the post of Archbishop and King John wanted John de Gray, Pope Innocent III chose Stephen Langton. Langton was originally from Lincolnshire but after teaching in Paris had moved to Rome where he had become a Cardinal. The monks of Canterbury accepted the Pope's decision and voted Langton in as the new Archbishop. King John did not agree.

1207

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Stephen Langton becomes Archbishop of Canterbury 
Stephen Langton was chosen as Archbishop of Canterbury by Pope Innocent III.

Earl of Leicester loses land 
King John took the land of the Earl of Leicester (father of Simon de Montfort) and banished him from England.

Odiham Castle built 
At a cost of £1200, King John built the castle of Odiham.

Marshall inherits the lands of Leinster in Ireland 
As Earl of Pembroke, William Marshall inherited the lands of Leinster in Ireland. The link between Pembroke and Leinster started when Richard de Clare married the daughter of the King of Leinster in 1170.

Aberystwyth Castle demolished 
The castle at Aberystwyth was demolished by Maelgwyn, the brother of the then Lord of Cardiganshire. Maelgwyn had risen up in revolt against his brother and put him in prison. Maelgwyn had first captured the castle but decided to destroy it because Llywelyn the Great was threatening to attack Maelgwyn's lands and he feared the that castle could fall into Llywelyn's hands.

John introduces the first income tax 
King John introduced the first income tax in England. One thirteenth of income from rents and moveable property had to be paid. Collected locally by sheriffs and administered by the Exchequer. The amount was one shilling on each mark of income, where a mark was 13 shillings and 4 pence. The tax was unpopular with the barons and especially in the churches and monasteries. The tax did raise a lot of money for the king, doubling his annual income for the year.

Aug  -  The Pope threatens an Interdict 
The Pope threatened King John with the sentence of Interdict unless he accepted Stephen Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury. An Interdict meant that church services would be banned in England except for baptisms and confessions.

Oct  -  Birth of Henry III 
Henry, the future king of England, was born at Winchester Castle.

Christmas  -  John at Worcester 
King John visited Worcester and gave funds for the rebuilding of the Cathedral after the devastating fire.

1208

Events occurring at some time during this year 
West front of Notre Dame 
After the nave was completed construction work commenced on the west front of Notre Dame Cathedral under the direction of Pierre de Nemours.

Peter of Castelnau is murdered 
Peter of Castelnau, the papal legate, was murdered by heretics belonging to the Albigensains. The Albigensains were an extreme religious group based in the south of France. The Pope wanted them to cease their opposition to the Church. The murder led to the start of the Albegensian Crusade that would destroy the heretics.

John demands hostages 
King John suspected that the loyalty of some barons towards the Crown was not strong so demanded they provide hostages to ensure they did not rise up against him. William de Braose was one of these barons. When a messanger arrived at Bramber Castle from the King with demands to hand over his children William de Braose refused stating that he could not trust the King with their safety. Together with his family William fled to Ireland.

Mar 24  -  Interdict served by the Pope 
With King John still refusing to accept Langton as Archbishop the Pope served the sentence of Interdict on England. In response King John confiscated church property. Many of the bishops of the great churches in the country fled abroad to the Continent.

1209

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Langton lands at Dover  
Stephen Langton landed in England from France to see King John and take the position of Archbishop of Canterbury. John refused to meet with him although John did meet Stephen's brother Simon.

Cambridge University founded 
The university at Cambridge was founded by scholars from Oxford who left the university there after violent disputes with the local people.

Jul 22  -  Albigensians massacred 
The Albignsian stronghold of Beziers was besieged and when it was captured all the people within it were massacred.

Aug  -  John prepares to invade Scotland 
John mobilized an army with the help of Llewelyn of Gwynedd a Welsh chieftain and moved them up to Norham Castle. William 'the Lyon', the king of Scotland was not ready for conflict and paid John to leave and a treaty was signed.

Nov  -  John excommunicated by the Pope 
King John is excommunicated by Pope Innocent III.

1210

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Kenilworth Castle defences improved 
King John spent time and money on the castle at Kenilworth, building outer walls and raising the height of the lake.

Fountains Abbey rebuilding work 
Rebuilding work of the eastern parts at Fountains Abbey.

Haverfordwest Castle hosts King John 
King John used Haverfordwest Castle as a staging post before and after travelling to Ireland.

Katla Volcano Eruption 
Eruption of the large Icelandic volcano.

Jun 10  -  John lands in Ireland 
John landed at Waterford looking for the rebel baron William de Braose who had fled to Ireland. John took the opportunity to visit his lands in Ireland receiving homage from the Irish Chieftains. de Broase fled but his wife and son were captured, taken back to England and starved to death in Windsor Castle.

Nov 1  -  Arrest of Wealthy Jews 
King John ordered that Jews across the country had to pay a 'tullage', a sum of money to the king. Those who did not pay were arrested, imprisoned and forced to pay the money in return for their release. May Jews were executed or left the country.

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1211

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Barbican built at Bridgnorth Castle 
Work was carried out on the outer defences at Bridgnorth.

Rheims Cathedral destroyed by fire 
The French cathedral was left beyond repair after a fire.

Summer  -  Excommunication served 
In Northampton the Papal legate Pandulf served King John with his excommunication ordered by the Pope. For John this was a serious blow to his ability to rule the country as it absolved the King's subjects from their oaths of allegiance, gave the Barons reason to revolt and allowed the King of France to invade England to remove John from power.

Jul  -  Peace with Wales 
John and Llewelyn the Great of Wales reached an agreement and a peace treaty was signed.

1212

Events occurring at some time during this year 
John extorts money from the barons 
Obsessed with regaining the Angevin empire, John tried all means to get money from the barons to pay for it. He held inquiries into tenures, confiscated estates, took hostages all in the hope that the barons would be forced to be loyal and to give him funds.

William gives son as hostage 
William, King of the Scots was prepared to give John his eldest son, Alexander as hostage to keep the peace between the two countries. William was also eager that Alexander should become King of the Scots after himself. Earning the trust of John was to be repaid later when John sent an army to Scotland to help William put down a rebellion.

A Great fire of London 
Fire broke out on the southern shore of the River Thames and crossed the river starting more fires on the northern shore. Many people were killed. Boats tried to rescue people trapped on London Bridge but the boats became overloaded and many drowned. This appears to be a big a disaster as the fire of 1666.

Straw roofs to be replaced by tiles 
Possibly due to the disastrous fire in London this year bylaws were passed to ensure flammable straw roofs were replaced by tiles.

Children's Crusade 
A mysterious Crusade supposed to have consisted of children from Germany and possibly France. How young the children were who took part is not known and they may not have been children at all. The Crusaders did not get very far and many of those that took part never came back. They were either killed or sold into slavery.

Nov  -  John accepts Pope's demands 
Taking the advice of William Marshal John accepted the demands of the Pope and that Stephen Langton should become Archbishop. A peace mission was also sent to the Pope.

1213

Mar  -  John prepares against invasion 
At a camp near Canterbury called Barham Down King John mobilized an army against the threat of invasion from the French.

Spring  -  French plan invasion 
Because King John had been excommunicated by the Pope the French king, Philippe, had the right to invade England and remove John from the throne. Philippe wanted to put his son Louis in John's place.

May  -  King John's first act of submission 
King John made his first act of submission to the Pope's envoy.

May 30  -  French fleet defeated 
The English fleet defeated the French fleet off Damme, Flanders and the French plans of invasion are destroyed.

Jul 20  -  Excommunication lifted 
When King John agreed to meet Stephen Langton at Winchester he was absolved from excommunication.

Sep 26  -  Pope's envoy arrives in England 
Cardinal Nicholas De Romanis arrived in England to prepare for the settlement of the Interdict. John's punishment was to pay 100,000 marks to compensate the church for the losses he had caused it.

Oct 3  -  Second act of submission 
King John appeared at St. Paul's Cathedral in a second act of submission to the Pope.

Nov  -  John meets the Barons 
John met the Barons at Wallingford in an attempt to prevent them from rebelling against him.

1214

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Foundation of Deer Abbey 
This Cistercian abbey near Peterhead in Scotland was founded by monks from Kinloss.

Dieulacres Abbey moved 
A new location for this Cistercian abbey was found near Leek in Staffordshire.

Feb 1  -  Peter Des Roches becomes Justiciar 
John elects Peter Des Roches, the Bishop of Winchester as his Justiciar. Des Roches had supported John through the years of Interdict and was repaid for his loyalty, but he was not popular with the other Barons.

Feb 2  -  John sails for France 
John's conflict with Philippe of France started again with John's departure from Portsmouth. With him sailed his wife and second son, Richard. He also took a large amount of treasure.

Jun 29  -  Interdict lifted 
At St. Paul's Cathedral, in London, the Interdict was finally lifted.

Jul 27  -  Battle of Bouvines 
English forces under the control of Emperor Otto IV were defeated by Philip II of France.

Oct 15  -  John returns from France 
Upset by demands for higher taxes and less control over affairs in England, the Barons met John on his return with a charter from the time of Henry I which they wanted John to agree to and abide by.

Dec 4  -  William the Lyon of Scotland dies 
William, the King of Scotland died.

Dec 5  -  Alexander II became King of the Scots 
Alexander was crowned at Scone.

1215

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Colchester Castle occupied by the French 
An invasion force from France under direction of Philippe II, the king of France captured Colchester Castle. Their objective was to help the cause of the Baron's against king John.

Wallingford Castle fortified 
The fortifications at Wallingford castle were strengthened at this time.

Llewellyn captures Abervagenny Castle 
The castle at Abervagenny was captured from King John's forces by Llewellyn.

Llewellyn captures Cilgerran Castle 
Llewellyn's fight against the Normans continued with the capture of Cilgerran Castle.

Kidwelly captured by the Welsh 
Rhys Grug, another son of the Lord Rhys, captured and burnt the castle at Kidwelly. The Welsh held the castle for several years until Llywelyn the Great forced its restoration to the Normans .

Jan  -  John meets the Barons in London 
Promising the Barons safe passage, John met them in London to discuss their demands. John postponed any answer until Easter.

Mar 4  -  John takes oath for Crusade 
Hoping to gain the support of the Pope against the Barons, John took the oath to go on Crusade.

Apr 1  -  Pope sides with John 
Pope Innocent III sent a letter to the Barons asking them to halt their actions against John.

May 17  -  London falls to the Rebels 
The gates to London were opened by a supporter of the rebellious Barons and the houses of Jews were targeted for ransacking and burning. The rebels called for those Barons still on the side of John to join them. The Tower of London held by John's supporters was too well defended to fall into the hands of the rebels.

May 27  -  A truce is sought 
Stephen Langton and William Marshall attempted to get the Barons and John to meet and find a settlement to the civil war.

Jun 15  -  John's Great Charter (the Magna Carta) 
A large number of barons, led by Stephen Langton the archbishop of Canterbury, meet King John on an island in the Thames at Runnymede. They forced the king to sign the 'Great Charter' or Magna Carta that would limit the power of the monarchy. The barons insisted that the old feudal contract should be reinstated and that the king should abide by the laws that the rest of the population did. The feudal contract allowed the barons to run their own lands, renting it from the king but paying rent by supplying knights rather than money. This feudal system had been set up by William the Conqueror.

Aug 24  -  The Magna Carta is annulled 
Pope Innocent III annulled the Magna Carta freeing King John from its limitations. The Pope annulled the charter on the grounds that the King only signed it because he was forced to and that the document was illegal. The Pope was prepared to support John against the rebel barons because he wanted him to take a key role in a new crusade.

Oct (to , 1217)  -  Baron's war 
After the Magna Carta was annulled and it was clear that John was not going to agree to the terms of the charter the civil war between King John and the rebel barons started. The barons offered the English crown to Prince Louis, the son of King Philippe II of France and invited him to invade England. John confiscated the rebel barons' lands and gave them to his own supporters. King John besieged Rochester Castle where a garrison of men had been left by the barons. The garrison was starved out and the castle fell to the King.

1216

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Beaudesert castle inner bailey 
Peter de Montfort rebuilt the inner bailey of Beaudesert Castle in stone, of which nothing remains.

Honorius III becomes Pope  (More...)
Jan  -  King John attacks Berwick 
King John attacked Berwick and forced the Scots to leave. He also raided the lowlands.

Feb  -  King John puts down revolt 
King John put down a revolt in East Anglia. The Barons and the French kept hold of London.

Feb  -  Small French fleet land in London 
A small French army landed in London. Their commander informed the rebel barons that Prince Louis would soon arrive from France.

May 18  -  A storm hits John's fleet 
John's fleet of ships was badly damaged by storms as they prepare to defend against an invasion from France. This left the way open for Prince Louis to sail to England a few days later.

May 21  -  Prince Louis of France claims English Throne 
Invited by the barons opposed to king John, Prince Louis of France landed in England to claim the English Throne. Louis captured Rochester Castle after a short siege.

Jun (to Oct)  -  Prince Louis advances across England 
Prince Louis advanced on Winchester and captured the city and its castle. Elsewhere, Windsor Castle and Dover Castle were besieged by the rebel barons. Both castles were defended and held out against the sieges. King John used Corfe Castle in the south-west as his base of operations while he planned his campaign against the rebel barons and Prince Louis.

Jul 18  -  Honorius III elected as the new Pope 
Pope Innocent III died on July 16 and two days later in Rome the cardinals elected Honorius III as the Pope.

Sep  -  William of Cassingham 
A man called William of Cassingham, possibly known as Willekin of the Weald, supported King John against the invaders and attacked the rebel barons and French in whatever means he could using a form of guerrilla warfare.

Oct  -  Death of King John 
King John died at Newark from excessive eating and drinking. Protestant historians of the 16th century wrote that he was poisoned by a monk at Swineshead in Lincolnshire. The monk received orders from the Pope to kill King John and took a small amount of poisoned wine himself to reassure the King and also died. But had King John become the Pope's ally before his death?

Oct  -  King John buried at Worcester  
King John's wishes were to be buried at the church at Worcester.This was done and King John's body was placed in a tomb at the centre of the Cathedral.

Oct 19  -  King John dies 
King John died at Newark. This was shortly after he lost his baggage train in the Wash estuary as the tide returned. There was supposed to be a large amount of treasure in the baggage train at the time and it has never been found.

Oct 28  -  King Henry III Crowned 
King John's eldest son Henry was crowned King Henry III at the abbey church of Gloucester by Peter des Roches the Bishop of Winchester. The Earl of Pembroke, Earl Marshal of England (William Marshal), was declared Regent.

Nov  -  Llewelyn divides Wales 
Llewelyn of Wales divided south Wales amongst the native princes.

Nov 12  -  Revision to the Magna Carta 
The Magna Carta was revised at King Henry's Council at Bristol.

1217

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Portchester castle captured 
Prince Louis captured and almost destroyed the castle at Portchester.

Foundation of Culross Abbey 
Cluross Abbey, in Fife Scotland, was founded by this year by Malcolm, the Earl of Fife.

Apr  -  Siege of Mountsorrel Castle 
Royalists besieged the French controlled Mountsorrel Castle in Lincolnshire. When Louis sent reinforcements to assist those in the castle the royalists moved away to Nottingham. The French army then made the mistake of moving on to Lincoln where the royalists had held out against previous attacks.

May 20  -  Battle of Lincoln 
Henry III's supporters defeated the forces belonging to Prince Louis and the rebel barons that were besieging the castle at Lincoln.

Aug 24  -  Battle off Sandwich 
A fleet of French ships were defeated off the coast near Sandwich by Hubert de Burgh. The French fleet was commanded by Eustace the Monk, a pirate and mercenary who fought for both the French and English when it suited his needs. The French fleet were bringing more men and supplies to assist Prince Louis in his quest to take the English throne. The ship Eustace was on was captured and the monk was executed.

Sep 12  -  Treaty of Kingston 
The defeat of the French fleet left Prince Louis without much hope of taking the English throne. William Marshall blockaded London from the sea and land and at Lambeth Louis accepted peace terms. Louis waived his claim to the throne of England and should have restored Normandy to Henry but did not. Louis was paid 10,000 marks to ensure he left the country as soon as possible. William Marshall pardoned all those who had supported Louis.

1218

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Construction of Castle Pelerin 
The Knights Templar, with the help of pilgrims, built this castle in the Holy Land.

1219

Events occurring at some time during this year 
The Fifth Crusade (1219-21) 
The Fifth Crusade.

William Marshal dies 
William Marshal is succeeded by Peter de Roches, Bishop of Winchester and Hubert de Burgh who was Justiciary.

Foundation of Deer Abbey 
The Cistercian Deer Abbey in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, was founded by William Coymn, the Earl of Buchan. It was populated with monks from Kinloss.

1220

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Salisbury Cathedral rebuilding started 
A new site 2 miles from the original site at Old Sarum was chosen for the new Salisbury Cathedral. For a Cathedral the building work was completed in a very short time and the building was consecrated in 1258 only 38 years later.

Work on the Lady Chapel of Salisbury Cathedral 
The Lady Chapel of Salisbury Cathedral appears to be the starting point of the construction of the new cathedral. Work continued until 1225.

Chapter-house of Lincoln Cathedral 
Lincoln's Chapter-house was constructed between 1220 and 1235.

Grosmont Castle building work 
Hubert de Burgh improved the defences at Grosmont Castle, including the gatehouse and towers.

Lady Chapel at Oxford 
Work began on the Lady Chapel at Oxford Cathedral. The chapel was incorporated into the layout of the Cathedral as an extra aisle built onto the north side of the building.

Henry III's improvements at the Tower 
Henry III made large alterations to the Tower of London including new curtain walls, an improved water filled ditch and a water gate so the King could enter the castle directly from the Thames.

Llewelyn raids Pembrokeshire 
Llewelyn, the Prince of Wales, began raiding Pembrokeshire to retake land that he accused William Marshall, the younger, of stealing.

Tower Collapse at St. David's 
(Or 1200) The central tower collapsed at St. David's Cathedral destroying the presbytery resulting in construction work to repair the damage.

Construction of Beverley Minster 
Building work on the current church began in this year. The building was designed using the Gothic style. The construction work continued until 1425.

May  -  Coronation of Henry III  
At his coronation in Westminster Abbey, Henry was reminded of his duties at king to maintain peace, defend the rights of the crown and to dispense justice where required. Henry was only around thirteen years old. The day before the coronation Henry laid the foundation stone of a new Lady Chapel at the Abbey.

Jul 7  -  Stephen Langton returns to England 
Stephen Langton returned to England and resumed the role of Archbishop of Canterbury. He performed a ceremony in Canterbury in which relics from St. Thomas Becket were put in a tomb. The 7th of July became St. Thomas of Canterbury's Day; a major holy day.

1221

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Hubert de Burgh 
Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, travelled to Rome and left Hubert de Burgh in charge of affairs of the country.

Joan marries Alexander II 
At York Minster, king John's daughter Joan married Alexander II, the king of the Scots. Joan was only eleven years old at the time of the wedding.

Construction of Castell-y-Bere 
Llyewelyn the Great started the construction of this Welsh castle.

1222

Events occurring at some time during this year 
William the younger retakes his castles 
Llewelyn, the Prince of Wales, had captured the castles at Carmarthen and Cardigan but both were recaptured by William Marshall, the younger.

Haley's Comet 
Return of the comet now named after Edmond Halley (died 1742) that returns approximately every 75 years.

1223

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Louis VIII becomes King of France 
Louis VIII became king of France, upon the death of his father Philippe Augustus.

Cilgerran Castle recaptured 
William Marshall, the younger, recaptured the castle at Cilgerran from Llewelyn ap Iorwerth.

Earls deprived of their castles 
Hubert de Burgh gets agreement that the rebel barons should give up their Earldoms and castles which were to be turned over to the crown. The Earls were slow in complying with the agreement.

Fire at Pershore Abbey 
A fire destroys part of the abbey church at Pershore.

Hubert de Burgh builds a mansion 
Hubert de Burgh purchased land from Westminster Abbey on which he built a mansion. This building would be expanded over the years to become Whitehall Palace.

1224

Events occurring at some time during this year 
London Fog 
From the Chronicles of Meaux Abbey came the report saying 'A London fog occurred while the Bishop of London was officiating in St. Paul's there came on suddenly such a thickness of the clouds and darkness of the sun, accompanied by thunder and lightening and a most foul stench, that the people departed, leaving only the bishop there with one attendant.'

Qtr 1  -  Henry reclaims castles 
All those castles that had been taken from King John were claimed back by Henry. Henry did not want to have untrustworthy Barons in control of strong castles. Fawkes de Breaute, one of the castle occupiers refused to relinquish his castle(s) and started a short rebellion. Stephen Langton and Hubert de Burgh dealt with Fawkes and the castles were handed over. (Need to find out which castles)

Jun (to Aug)  -  Bedford Castle siege 
The garrison at Bedford Castle, belonging to the rebel Falkes de Breute, refused to surrender to the Crown. Falkes had been repeated summonsed to account for his refusal to comply with agreement and when he refused to appear before the King the castle was surrounded. The castle fell when the keep was undermined. The garrison, who had surrendered the castle, were all hung on the order of the Justiciar. Falkes was allowed to leave the country but he lost all his possessions in doing so. Bedford Castle was badly damaged as a result.