Building work on the South Transept of York Minster took place until 1241.
Grace Dieu Abbey founded
Grace Dieu Abbey was founded in this year. It was a daughter house of the Cistercian abbey at Dore near Hereford. The foundation would have been earlier but the abbey was attacked and burnt by the Welsh in 1223. The abbey was situated near Monmouth, but no real remains can now be seen.
Lady Chapel at Hereford
From around 1226 until 1246, construction of the Lady Chapel at Hereford Cathedral was undertaken.
Blanche of Castile rules France
When Louis IX became king of France he was too young to rule. His mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled France on his behalf.
Louis IX becomes King of France
At just twelve years old, upon the death of his father, Louis IX became king of France. France was governed by the queen-mother Blanche of Castile, the widow of Louis VIII. The time was right for the English to regain lost ground in Normandy, but it would be several years before any expeditions would take place.
The Scottish Cistercian abbey built by monks from Melrose abbey. The abbey is situated on the shores of the Firth of Tay.
Gregory IX becomes Pope
The Sixth Crusade (1228-9)
The Sixth Crusade was won with diplomacy by Frederick II, who had married the heiress of Jerusalem in 1225. He went to the East to claim his right to the throne, and taking advantage of internal disputes between the Sultan's family members, concluded the Treaty of Jaffa, which gave Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth back to the Christians.
Stephen Langton dies
On the death of Stephen Langton, the archbishop of Canterbury, the Pope, attempting to raise as much money from the clergy in England filled senior posts in the clergy with anyone who bidded the highest.
Henry III visits Woodstock.
Henry spent time at the Palace of Woodstock.
Hubert de Burgh took ownership of the old motte and bailey fort and finished its reconstruction as a stone castle.
Henry III called for an army to be assembled at Portsmouth to be transported to Normandy to regain lost territories. A large army of knights turned up ready to go but not enough ships had been provided. The King blamed Hubert de Burgh for the fiasco and in his rage would have killed him if Ranulf of Chester had not intervened. This marks the beginning of the rift between Henry and Hubert de Burgh. The expedition was postponed until the mid of 1230.
Henry III was persuaded to remove Hubert de Burgh. Hubert escaped from prison and took refuge in a church at Devizes. After being dragged from the church Hubert was re-imprisoned. The bishop of Salisbury forced the Government to return Hubert to the church where his supporters rescued him.
Peter des Rievaulx becomes treasurer
Peter des Rievaulx, the nephew of the Peter des Roches, Bishop of Winchester, is made treasurer of the Henry III's household and keeper of the king's wardrobe. This moved him into an extremely important position for controlling the king's affairs.
Oaks given to Gloucester
Henry III donated one hundred and ten oaks from the forest of Dean to help in repair work at Gloucester church.
Lacock Abbey founded
Lacock Abbey in Wiltshire was founded by Ela, Countess of Salisbury, the widow of William Longespee, the son of Henry II.
Richard, Earl of Pembroke in alliance with Llywelyn of Wales join forces to fight Henry III. (Details required).
With the introduction of Peter de Roches as justiciar and the removal of Hubert de Burgh, control of the Exchequer came under Poitevin control and possibly reversed the gains created by the Magna Carta in 1215. King Henry III was given control of central administration. This angered the Barons and a group led by Richard Marshall, Earl of Pembroke opposed the changes.
Rout of Henry's army
Henry III's army was camped at Grosmont Castle when they were attacked in the night by a force of Welsh and English rebels. Several of Henry's supporters were captured and the castle was returned to Hubert de Burgh, one of the rebels.
Pope Gregory IX condemned the links that both the Knights Templar and Knights Hospitaller had with the Assassin fighters in the Middle East. He issued a Bull, a formal proclamation issued by the pope, preventing further contact with the Assassins.
Wisbech Castle damaged by storm
The town and castle at Wisbech were hit by a fierce storm.
King Henry marries Eleanor of Provence
King Henry III married Eleanor, one of four daughters of Raymond count of Provence. Eleanor was 14 years old. Simon de Montfort, as Lord High Steward, took care of the banquet and kitchen arrangements. The ceremony took place at Canterbury Cathedral.
Simon de Montfort married Henry III's sister, Eleanor secretly. She had been married to William, Earl of Pembroke (son of William Marshal?), but he died early and left her with his wealth. The Barons were not happy with this arrangement as they were not consulted.
The Crusade of Theobald of Champagne and the King of Navarre was a French expedition that did little, except obtain concessions from Damascus in Galilee, and Ascalon from Egypt. Richard of Cornwall, the brother of Henry III, arrived after Theobald had left, but managed to strengthen both concessions in Galilee, and the fortifications at Ascalon.
Wells Cathedral dedication of church
The church at Wells was dedicated in this year, but did not get its status as a Cathedral until 1244.
Edward (I) is born
Edward was the first son born to Henry III and Eleanor of Provence and was born at the Palace of Westminster. Simon de Montfort was chosen as his godfather by Henry III.
Work on the north transept of Rochester Cathedral took place between 1240 and 1255.
Building work at St. Paul's complete
In London, the central tower and the choir of St. Paul's had been rebuilt during the first part of the thirteenth century and by 1240, building work was completed. Some changes were made at the end of this century, but then no major alterations occurred until after the Reformation.
Chapter-house as Lichfield
The Chapter-house at Lichfield has two storeys, the lower one for the meetings and the upper one for the library. The building is roughly octagonal in shape, but two sides are double the length of the others.
Simon de Montfort is one a twelve man council who met to work out Henry's finances. Henry was criticised for his excesses.
Henry tries to retake Poitou
Isabella, Henry's mother persuaded Henry to mount an expedition to retake Poitou. Unable to get money directly from the barons, Henry resorted to extort money from them individually instead (how?). The expedition failed, and after being rescued the Earls of Leicester, Salisbury and Norfolk, Henry retreated to Bordeaux where they spent the winter.
Chapel of the Nine Altars
The Chapel of the Nine Altars in built on the east end of Durham Cathedral between 1242 and 1280.
York Minster North Transept
Building work on the North Transept of York Minster took place until 1255.
Earl Richard's vow
During a violent storm at sea, Richard, Earl of Cornwall, vowed to build a Religious house if he survived. He did survive and as a result Hailes Abbey was built.
Simon de Montfort gets custody of Kenilworth castle
King Henry III bestowed the custody of Kenilworth castle to Simon de Montfort. Simon's wife Eleanor, Henry's sister, already owned Odiham Castle so Simon had two of the strongest fortresses in England under his control.
Henry received a relic from the patriarch of Jerusalem consisting of a portion of the blood of Christ in a crystal vase. Henry walked with the vase in his hands clothed in a course robe from the treasury in St. Paul's to the church of Westminster where mass was said. He was assisted by attendants on both sides in case he slipped and dropped the vase.
After the Christians were defeated at Gaza in 1244, King Louis IX of France took the cross. He only managed to set sail for Cyprus some four years later, landing at Damietta in June of 1249, Louis had to wait until the Nile floods had reduced before continuing for Cairo. Held up and cut off from Damietta, the French King's camp was struck with disease and most of his men were killed or captured. Louis was taken prisoner and had to pay a ransom to be freed.
Bath Lady Chapel
At the abbey at Bath construction of the Lady Chapel took place between 1248 to 1264.
Blance of Castile rules France
While her son, Louis IX of France, was away taking part in the Crusades Blance of Castile ruled France. She did so until her death in 1252.
King Henry III ordered the construction of a castle at Rye to protect the River Rother from attack from the sea.
Alexander II of Scotland dies
Alexander raised an army and sailed to the Hebrides to regain control of them from Norway, he wanted to end the agreement alliance between the Lord of Argyll and the Norwegians. Alexander became ill on the voyage and was unable to recover. He died on the island of Kerrera.