Events occurring at some time during this year 
Beeston Castle construction 
Returning from a spell crusading in the Holy Land, Ranulf, the fifth Earl of Cheshire started the construction of the castle at Beeston.

Salisbury Choir 
Work on the Choir at Salisbury Cathedral started in 1225 and lasted until 1237.


Beeston Castle

Beeston Castle

The construction of Beeston Castle was started in 1225 by Earl Ranulf, the sixth Earl of Cheshire, on the 500ft summit of the outcrop of rock. The location was originally the site of a settlement dating back to the Bronze Age. The climb to the top of the castle is not for the faint hearted, but the view from the top is well worth the effort.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
York Minster South Transept 
Building work on the South Transept of York Minster until 1241.

Grace Dieu Abbey founded 
This was a daughter house of the Cistercian abbey at Dore near Hereford. The foundation would have been earlier but the abbey was attacked and burnt by the Welsh in 1223. The abbey was situated near Monmouth, but no real remains can be seen.

Lady Chapel at Hereford 
From around 1226 until 1246, construction of the Lady Chapel at Hereford cathedral was undertaken.

Louis IX becomes King of France 
At twelve years old, upon the death of his father, Louis IX became king of France.

Blance of Castile rules France 
When Louis IX became king of France he was too young to rule. His mother, Blance of Castile, ruled France on his behalf.

Events occurring at some time during this year 


Hereford Cathedral

Hereford Cathedral

The Norman invasion brought some stability and in 1080 under Bishop Losinga, rebuilding work began on the Cathedral which had been in ruins since the Welsh attack. There is a chair here supposed to be the chair used by King Stephen at his royal proclamation, in 1138.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Balmerino Abbey founded 
The Scottish Cistercian abbey built by monks from Melrose abbey. The abbey is situated on the shores of the Firth of Tay.

Gregory IX becomes Pope  (More...)



Events occurring at some time during this year 
The Sixth Crusade (1228-9) 
The Sixth Crusade was won with diplomacy by Frederick II, who had married the heiress of Jerusalem in 1225. He went to the East to claim his right to the throne, and taking advantage of internal disputes between the Sultan's family members, concluded the Treaty of Jaffa, which gave Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth back to the Christians.

Stephen Langton dies 
On the death of Stephen Langton, the archbishop of Canterbury, the Pope, attempting to raise as much money from the clergy in England filled senior posts in the clergy with anyone who bidded the highest.

Henry III visits Woodstock. 
Henry spent time at the Palace of Woodstock.

Montgomery Castle 
Hubert de Burgh took ownership of the old motte and bailey fort and finished its reconstruction as a stone castle.

Events occurring at some time during this year 



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Wells Cathedral West Front Started 
Building of the West Front of Wells Cathedral was begun.

Wells Cathedral West Front 
Work commenced on the West Front of Wells Cathedral.

Rievaulx Abbey rebuilding work 
Rebuilding work commenced at Rievaulx Abbey.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Tattershall Castle construction 
Construction of the castle at Tattershall.

Qtr 1  -  Hubert de Burgh in Wales 
Hubert de Burgh had become a powerful Lord in the Welsh Marshes, controlling castles such as Cardigan and Carmarthen. He began to threaten the local Welsh leaders.

Aug 13  -  Simon de Montfort takes possession of his land 
Henry III ordered the sheriffs of Hampshire, Dorset and Wiltshire to give Simon de Montfort the possession of the lands of his father, the Earl of Leicester.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Henry III removes Hubert de Burgh 
Henry III was persuaded to remove Hubert de Burgh. Hubert escaped from prison and took refuge in a church at Devizes. After being dragged from the church Hubert was re-imprisoned. The bishop of Salisbury forced the Government to return Hubert to the church where his supporters rescued him.

Peter des Rievaulx becomes treasurer 
Peter des Rievaulx, the nephew of the Peter des Roches, Bishop of Winchester, is made treasurer of the Henry III's household and keeper of the king's wardrobe. This moved him into an extremely important position for controlling the king's affairs.

Oaks given to Gloucester 
Henry III donated one hundred and ten oaks from the forest of Dean to help in repair work at Gloucester church.

Lacock Abbey founded 
Lacock Abbey in Wiltshire was founded by Ela, Countess of Salisbury, the widow of William Longespee, the son of Henry II.

Events occurring at some time during this year 



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Earl of Pembroke's revolt 
Richard, Earl of Pembroke in alliance with Llywelyn of Wales join forces to fight Henry III. (Details required).

Qtr 1  -  Baronian rebellion 
With the introduction of Peter de Roches as justiciar and the removal of Hubert de Burgh, the control of the Exchequer was under Poitevin control and possibly reversed the gains created by the Magna Carta in 1215. Henry was given control of central administration. This angered the Barons and a group led by Richard Marshall, Earl of Pembroke opposed the changes. Henry was able to deal with the Barons.

Nov  -  Rout of Henry's army 
Henry III's army was camped at Grosmont Castle when they were attacked in the night by a force of Welsh and English rebels. Several of Henry's supporters were captured and the castle was returned to Hubert de Burgh, one of the rebels.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Henry III at Woodstock 
Henry spent time at the Palace of Woodstock.

Leopards at the Tower 
The Tower of London was home to a menagerie of exotic animals given to the monarchs of England as gifts. In this year three leopards were given to Henry III.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Canterbury Cloister building work 
Canterbury Cloister building work.

The Pope condemns links to the Assassins 
Pope Gregory IX condemned the links that both the Knights Templar and Knights Hospitaller had with the Assassin fighters in the Middle East. He issued a Bull (a formal proclamation issued by the pope) preventing further contact with the Assassins.

Wisbech Castle damaged by storm 
The town and castle at Wisbech were hit by a fierce storm.

Jan 4  -  King Henry marries Eleanor of Provence 
Henry married Eleanor, one of four daughters of Raymond count of Provence. Eleanor was 14 years old. Simon de Montfort, as Lord High Steward, took care of the banquet and kitchen arrangements. The ceremony took place at Canterbury Cathedral.

Jan 20  -  Coronation of Eleanor of Provance 
Queen Eleanor was crowned at Westminster Abbey.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Beeston Castle claimed by Henry 
With the death of the last male heir of the Earldom of Cheshire, the earldom and castle at Beeston are claimed by Henry III. The castle was too important not to be in the hands of the crown.

Transepts and Nave of Salisbury Cathedral 
Construction of the major transept and nave of Salisbury Cathedral started in 1237 and lasted until 1258. Salisbury Cathedral has a smaller choir transept.

Lincoln tower collapses 
During a sermon by one of the canons of the cathedral, the newly finished central tower collapsed burying some of the congregation.


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Jan  -  Simon marries Henry's sister 
Simon de Montfort married Henry III's sister, Eleanor secretly. She had been married to William, Earl of Pembroke (son of William Marshal?), but he died early and left her with his wealth. The Barons were not happy with this arrangement as they were not consulted.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Theobald of Champagne's Crusade 
The Crusade of Theobald of Champagne and the King of Navarre was a French expedition that did little, except obtain concessions from Damascus in Galilee, and Ascalon from Egypt. Richard of Cornwall, the brother of Henry III, arrived after Theobald had left, but managed to strengthen both concessions in Galilee, and the fortifications at Ascalon.

Wells Cathedral dedication of church 
The church at Wells was dedicated in this year, but did not get its status as a Cathedral until 1244.

Jun  -  Edward (I) is born 
Edward was the first son born to Henry III and Eleanor of Provence and was born at the Palace of Westminster. Simon de Montfort was chosen as his godfather by Henry III.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
North Transept of Rochester Cathedral 
Work on the north transept between 1240 and 1255.

Building work at St. Paul's complete 
The central tower and the choir had been rebuilt during the first part of the thirteenth century and by 1240, building work was completed. Some changes were made at the end of this century, but then no major alterations occurred until after the Reformation.

Chapter-house as Lichfield 
The Chapter-house at Lichfield has two storeys, the lower one for the meetings and the upper one for the library. The building is roughly octagonal in shape, but two sides are double the length of the others.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Henry entertains at Woodstock 
Henry spent time at Woodstock and entertained Alexander. King of the Scots and the English nobility.

Mar 24  -  Krakow falls to the Mongol army 
The alarm had been raised and the citizens of the Polish city of Krakow had all but abandoned their homes when the Mongol army arrived. The city was put to the torch by the Mongols.

Oct  -  Celestine IV becomes Pope 
Celestine IV was Pope for only seventeen days before his death in November



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Henry's finances are criticised 
Simon de Montfort is one a twelve man council who met to work out Henry's finances. Henry was criticised for his excesses.

Henry tries to retake Poitou 
Isabella, Henry's mother persuaded Henry to mount an expedition to retake Poitou. Unable to get money directly from the barons, Henry resorted to extort money from them individually instead (how?). The expedition failed, and after being rescued the Earls of Leicester, Salisbury and Norfolk, Henry retreated to Bordeaux where they spent the winter.

Chapel of the Nine Altars 
The Chapel of the Nine Altars in built on the east end of Durham Cathedral between 1242 and 1280.

York Minster North Transept 
Building work on the North Transept of York Minster until 1255.

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Oct  -  Earl Richard's vow 
During a violent storm at sea, Richard, Earl of Cornwall, vowed to build a Religious house if he survived. He did survive and as a result Hailes Abbey was built.




Events occurring at some time during this year 
Innocent IV becomes Pope  (More...)

Spring  -  Simon de Montfort gets custody of Kenilworth castle 
Henry III bestowed the custody of Kenilworth castle to Simon de Montfort. Simon's wife Eleanor (Henry's sister) already owned Odiham Castle so Simon had two of the strongest fortresses in England under his control.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Bishop of Bath and Wells 
The Pope decreed that Wells should be reinstated as a Cathedral and the Bishop became the Bishop of Bath and Wells.

Aug  -  Jerusalem falls. 
With the fall of Jerusalem and the crushing defeat of the Christian armies at Gaza, Louis IX took the cross and prepared for a Crusade. (It took him four years to set sail).



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Carpini, the Christian envoy, travels to the Mongol Empire 
Carpini, a Christian envoy travelled to the seat of the Mongol Emperor at Karakoram and another, Roubrouck followed in 1253.

Rebuilding of Westminster Abbey 
Henry started the work of rebuilding Westminster Abbey as a tribute to Edward the Confessor.

Carlisle Cathedral building work 
Work on the choir, aisles and arcading began and construction lasted until 1292 when a fire badly damaged the Cathedral.

Bigods take Chepstow Castle  
When Maud, the last of the Marshal line, died in 1245 Chepstow Castle was passed to her son Roger Bigod II, Earl of Norfolk.

Katla Volcano Eruption 
Eruption of the large Icelandic volcano.

Events occurring at some time during this year 


Chepstow Castle

Chepstow Castle

Chepstow Castle is situated on the mouth of the river Wye and is the gate-house to the Vale of Wye. Built by William or his son Roger Fitz Osbern on a high cliff overlooking the river the castle was well situated to control movements and as a base for further exploration of Wales.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Hailes Abbey begun 
Twenty monks and ten lay brothers (monks who performed manual tasks) arrived at Hailes to start work on the new Abbey.

Peter de Savoy granted Pevensey Castle  
Henry III granted Pevensey castle to the Queen's uncle, Peter de Savoy, Earl of Richmond.

Beaulieu Abbey dedicated 
The Cistercial abbey at Beaulieu founded earlier by King John was dedicated in the presence of King Henry III, Queen Eleanor and Prince Edward.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Henry receives a relic 
Henry received a relic from the patriarch of Jerusalem consisting of a portion of the blood of Christ in a crystal vase. Henry walked with the vase in his hands clothed in a course robe from the treasury in St. Paul's to the church of Westminster where mass was said. He was assisted by attendants on both sides in case he slipped and dropped the vase.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
The Seventh Crusade (1248-54) 
After the Christians were defeated at Gaza in 1244, Louis IX of France (St. Louis) took the cross. He actually managed to set sail for Cyprus, his base some four years later. Landing at Damietta in June 1249, Louis, he to wait until the Nile floods had reduced before continuing for Cairo. Held up and cut off from Damietta, Louis' camp was struck with disease and most were killed or captured. Louis was taken prisoner, and had to pay a ransom to be freed.

Bath Lady Chapel 
Construction of the Lady Chapel between 1248 to 1264.

Blance of Castile rules France 
While her son, Louis IX of France, was away taking part in the Crusades Blance of Castile ruled France. She did this until her death in 1252.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Construction of Rye Castle 
Henry III ordered the construction of a castle at Rye.

Jul 8  -  Alexander II of Scotland dies 
Alexander raised an army and sailed to the Hebrides to regain control of them from Norway, he wanted to end the agreement alliance between the Lord of Argyll and the Norwegians. Alexander became ill on the voyage and was unable to recover. He died on the island of Kerrera.

Jul 9  -  Alexander III became King of the Scots 
Alexander was crowned at Scone.