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Transport yourself back up to a thousand years and explore historical buildings as they may have appeared in the past.
1325 .. 1349
1325 .. 1349
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Peterborough's Central Tower
The central tower of Peterborough Cathedral was begun in 1325.
Isabella leaves for France
Isabella of France, the wife of King Edward II, travelled to France to see King Charles IV, her brother. Her mission was to bring to an end the disputes over land between France and England. The French King agreed to the English reclaiming the lands of Gascony and Ponthieu as long as Edward came to Paris and paid homage. In Paris Isabella met Roger Mortimer who had recently escaped from the Tower of London. She fell in love with him.
Prince Edward in France
In England, King Edward II was persuaded not to go to France by the Despensers. The Despensers were worried that because their position of power in England was precarious, if Edward left the country they could easily lose that power. Instead, it was decided that the King's son Prince Edward, only thirteen years old should go to France and pay homage instead. Before the prince left for France, the King bestowed the title of Count of Ponthieu on his son and the French King gave consent for him to to have Aquitaine as well. On the 12th of September Prince Edward left England and sailed to France.
Prince Edward is captured
Prince Edward met Charles IV and paid him homage. The French king gave the Prince the title of Duke of Aquitaine and informed the English King that the French were going to retain the Agenais, an area of southwest France. Prince Edward had effectively been captured and his mother, Isabella the English Queen, had begun the plans of removing her husband from the throne of England.
Edward commands Isabella to return
At a Parliament called to discuss the situation in France, it was decided to send a petition to Isabella for her return to England. She refused. In France, her brother the King had become annoyed with Isabella's conduct. Isabella left France and went to the court of William II, Count of Hainault who assisted her with preparations to invade England. A promise was made to marry Prince Edward, now Duke of Aquitaine to William's daughter Philippa.
A new college is founded in Cambridge, called Clare College.
Threat of invasion
Preparations were made in England for the threatened invasion from Isabella. Preparations were made difficult because Hugh Despensers was so unpopular.
Marriage arranged between Edward and Philippa
Isabella arranged the future marriage between her son Edward and Philippa the daughter of William count of Hainault. Isabella claimed part of Philippa's dowry in advance so that she could finance her invasion of England.
Isabella and Mortimer land to take the throne
Isabella, the wife of Edward II and her supporters including Mortimer landed at Orwell in Suffolk. Their aim was to remove Edward II from his throne and place Prince Edward there as the new king. Isabella had no problem in raising an army from those opposed to the King and they advanced on London. Although Edward was in the Tower of London the rest of London was against him and he decided to leave the city and head west with his supporters including the Despensers and the Earl of Winchester.
Prince Edward is declared Keeper of the Realm
Isabella of France the wife of King Edward II entered Bristol and was welcomed by the citizens there. The Earl of Winchester who had taken to the castle decided the best action was surrender. He was executed on the 27th of October as a traitor.
The King was captured in Wales at the Abbey of Neath. He had hoped to get some support in Wales but that was not to be the case. The Despensers were also captured. Hugh Despenser was given a short trial and executed as a traitor. Edward was taken to Kenilworth castle and imprisoned.
King Edward III married Philippa of Hainault at York Minster. The marriage was arranged as many were at the time. The arrangement was organised as early as 1323, when she was not yet nine years old. The Bishop of Exeter visited Hainault to see the girl.
Charles IV of France Dies
After the death of Charles IV the next rightful claimant to the French throne was not clear-cut as there was no male heir. Isabella, the sister of Charles, had married Edward II and their son Edward III had just taken on the rule of England. Isabella put in a claim for her son although in French law it was not possible to inherit the throne through the female line.
The child of the late French king is a girl
When Charles IV died he left a wife expecting a child. She gave birth to a daughter so the first cousin of Charles was chosen as the next King of France. He was Philippe of Valois the grandson of Philippe III of France.
Treaty of Northampton
In the Treaty of Northampton England recognised the Declaration of Arbroath drawn up by Robert the Bruce in 1320. Scotland was accepted as an independent country under the rule of Robert.
Philippe VI crowned at Rheims
King Philippe VI of France was crowned at Rheims Cathedral. In England, Isabella, the mother of Edward III, declared that her son should be the French King as she, as the elder sister of the late King of France, Charles IV, had a better claim.
David (II) marries Joan
Part of the Treaty of Northampton was the betrothal of David Bruce, the son of Robert King of the Scots, to King Edward's sister Joan. The two were married in the same year.
Reconstruction work, possibly on the choir, took place at Wells Cathedral.
Philippe summons Edward
Philippe of Valois summoned Edward to travel to France and do him homage for lands that Edward held in south western and northern France.
Edward agrees to do homage to Philippe
Edward III agreed to do homage to Philippe of Valois for the lands he held in Aquitaine. Edward did not place his hands between Philippe's, a sign of total loyalty which would have been hard to reverse, as Edward was unhappy about Philippe's claim to the French throne. Edward was hoping diplomatic endeavours would help his position and wanted Philippe's daughter Joan to marry his first son Edward the Black Prince.
David II becomes king of Scotland
King Robert the first of Scotland died and was followed by David the second. David was only 5 years old and so Edward Balliol claimed his right to the throne being the son of John who was king of Scotland from 1292 to 1296.
King Edward III invited weavers from Flanders to come to England and start production of cloth. It was cheaper to produce the cloth in England as much of the raw material was locally produced. Edward promised the weavers his protection.
Meeting between Edward III and Philippe VI
In disguise Edward travelled to France to meet Philippe VI. At the meeting it was agreed that Edward did not have to do homage for Aquitaine.
David II is crowned
King David II, at the age of 7, was crowned King of Scotland at Scone.
Isabella, the daughter of Edward III and Philippa of Hainault, was born.
Edward Balliol invades Scotland
Edward Balliol took a small army of men, including archers, into Scotland to take back the Scottish throne.
Battle of Dupplin Moor
With help from English archers Edward Balliol forwarded his right to the Scottish throne by defeating the Scots fighting for the young King David II at Dupplin Moor. Many Scots were killed in the batlle including the Earl of Mar and King David's uncle Lord Robert Bruce.
Balliol crowned king of Scotland
Edward Balliol was crowned king of Scotland at Scone but was quickly forced over the border back to England prompting Edward III's assaults.
Edward Balliol's fortunes changed when he was overthrown and had to flee to England.
Edward (the Black Prince) was given the title Earl of Chester.
Isle of Man comes under English control
Montagu, an English Baron, took control of the Isle of Man from Scotland. From that time the island has been associated with England.
Battle of Halidon Hill
King Edward had positioned his army on Halidon Hill overlooking Berwick which he had under siege. He choose the location because it allowed him to look out for the Scots who may try and relieve the Scottish who were besieged with the town. A Scottish force tried to get to Berwick put were defeated by Edward's army. Edward III's attacks on Scotland and victory at Halidon Hill put Edward Balliol back on the Scottish throne for four more years. Robert (II), the future King of the Scots, was one of the Scottish commanders at the battle of Halidon Hill.
Berwick surrenders to the English
After the defeat of their relief force at Haildon Hill the day before the Scots holding out in Berwick had no option but surrender to the English and Edward III.
License to crenelate (fortify) the castle at Bampton in Devon was granted.
Exports of Wool Stopped
Louis de Nevers, the count of Flanders from 1322, prohibited trade with England in an attempt to control the powerful cloth-weavers in the area. Louis suspected some kind of link between the weavers and England and so he banned the trade of wool to cut the supplies that their wealth relied on. King Edward III counteracted with by changing the only continental port where wool was imported to from Bruges to Antwerp.
Edward, the Black Prince, was given the title Duke of Cornwall by his father Edward III. The estate was created at this time is order to provide an annual income for the Prince and for future eldest sons of the monarch.
Cardinals sent to Europe
Two cardinals, Peter Gomez and Bertrand of Montfavence, were sent by Pope Benedict XII to Europe to try and prevent Edward III of England and Philipe VI of France going to war.
A comet is seen over France
A comet was seen in the skies of France and was viewed as a bad omen and that war was on the horizon.
Edward rescues Stirling Castle
Edward III reached Stirling Castle with supplies to assist the English garrison there that was under siege from Sir Andrew Moray.
Robert III is born at Scone
Robert (III), the future king of Scotland, was born at Scone.
Start of the Hundred Years' War
Relations between England and France were not good. Philippe VI the French King had sent ships to help the Scots who were attacking English merchant shipping and ports. There was the threat that the French would invade England. Edward III then laid a claim to the French throne. The claim centred on the fact that Isabella, his mother, was the daughter of Philippe IV of France. All of Philippe's sons John I, Philippe V and Charles IV had died without passing the French throne onto a son. On his death-bed Charles IV designated Philippe of Valois, his first cousin, as regent. Charles' wife was expecting a child and it was hoped that the child would be a boy. The child was a girl and Philippe of Valois claimed the throne for himself. Edward's claim to the throne was disputed because in French law it was stated that the line of succession could not pass through the female line. Philippe VI then declared that all of the English held lands in France were forfeit. These events were the start of conflict between England and France that would last on and off for more than one hundred years.
Battle of Cadsand
King Edward III sent an expedition to the island of Cadsand, a few miles up the coast from Calais, where ships belonging to Louis of Flanders were being used to attack English ships. The English, led by Sir Walter Manny, took the island.
The Scissor arches were added to prevent the collapse of the central tower.
Construction of Ford Castle
Sir William Heron started building work on Ford Castle in Northumberland
French attack English ports
Philippe used Genoese troops to attack ports on the south coast of England including Southampton, Plymouth, Hastings and Rye. The attacks reached right around the coast as far as Bristol.
A comet seen in Europe
A second? comet trailing fire is seen in the skies over Europe.
Edward invades France
Edward crossed to Antwerp and attempted an invasion of France.
French attacks continue on the south coast
Towns at Dover, Folkestone, Harwich, Hastings, Portsmouth, Rye, and the Isle of Wight were attacked and many merchant ships were destroyed. The attackers even sailed into Portsmouth harbour pretending to be English by raising English flags and sacked the town.
Lionel born to Queen Philippa
Queen Philippa gave birth to another son. The child was born in Antwerp.
The French attack Gorey Castle on the island of Jersey but the castle's garrison held out and fought off the invaders.
French plan invasion
Philippe VI of France and the Normandy elite planned an invasion of England. Their invasion force consisted of around 20,000 to 25,000 men.
French attack Dover
A French fleet attacked Dover, Folkestone and Sandwich but they were driven back to France. Boulogne was attacked in revenge.
Edward in Northern France
With the promised help of the counts of Hainault and Namur Edward took his army into Northern France. The counts changed their minds as they had lands to lose if they fought against Philippe. Edward continued without their help and the English confronted the French at La Fremengerie. The French refused to fight and English, short of supplies, turned back.
Queen's College Oxford founded by Robert de Eglesfield.
Building work at Windsor Castle
The Round Tower was rebuilt at Windsor Castle.
Edward declares himself King
In Ghent (Flanders) Edward declared himself as the true King of France. When he left Flanders for England Philippa remained as assurance that money Edward owed would be paid.
Edward raises taxes
Parliament agreed to raise taxes so that Edward could fund an army to invade France.
Battle of Sluys
A naval battle between the English and French. The French tried to prevent the English ships landing at Flanders. The French were defeated by Edward's forces. Edward did not follow up with the advantage.
Siege of Tournai
King Edward III besieged the important French town of Tournai. The town proved impossible to break and when King Philippe VI arrived nearby with an army a truce was agreed. The truce with mediated by Philippe's sister who was also Edward's mother-in-law. The truce lasted until June of 1341.
Treaty of Esplechin
The Treaty of Esplechin was a peace treaty between Edward III of England and Philippe VI of France. Edward had large debts and further campaigning was not possible so he accepted that the truce between the two kings was the best course of action. This treaty marked the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years War.
Battle of the Salado River
Afonso of Portugal and Alfonso of Castile join forces to produce a major victory against the Muslim Moors who were invading from Africa.
Edward dismisses his Chancellor
Edward travelled back to England and came ashore at the Tower of London. He was horrified to find the castle unguarded. His anger did not stop with those in charge at the Tower. Edward sacked many of his advisors including the Chancellor, John Stratford, the Archbishop of Canterbury.
King Edward III of England and King David II of Scotland agreed peace terms and Edward returned to London.
Edward and Brittany
Edward sailed to Brittany to assist English troops already there. They were supporting Jean de Montfort's claim to be the Duke of Brittany. Philippe, king of France, disputed this claim and supported his own contender to the title. Edward left his eldest son in charge of England while he was away.
Siege of Vannes
Edward had to control Vannes if he was to hold Brittany and he laid siege to the city. The city did not fall to the English.
Building work on Chillingham Castle was started by Sir Thomas De Heton.
Island of Madeira discovered
The discovery of Madeira in the Atlantic Ocean is attributed to a legend in which Robert Machim (or Macham) and his lover were shipwrecked on the island after fleeing from England. The island was later colonised by the Portuguese.
A large earthquake hit the city of Lisbon on the west coast of Portugal damaging the cathedral and palaces. The area suffers an earthquake on a regular basis, the biggest being in 1755 when thousands died.
First Round Table at Windsor
A jousting tournament at Windsor castle may have been the time of the creation of the Order of the Garter based on King Arthur's knights of the Round Table. A huge circular hall was built within the grounds of the castle just for the event. The hall is supposed to have been 200 feet in diameter. The formal creation of the Order occurred later in 1348.
Edward gives permission to William de Clinton to build a castle.
Edward III orders an invasion fleet
King Edward III gave the order that an invasion fleet should be assembled at Portsmouth harbour.
Edward departs from Southampton
King Edward III's invasion fleet finally left Southampton harbour, delayed by bad weather earlier in the year. Estimates of the number of men Edward took with him vary but could have been around 20,000. This would have required hundreds of ships to transport them all.
Edward III lands in Normandy
Edward's invasion fleet landed on the north west coast of Normandy at Saint-Vaast de la Hougue on the Cotentin Peninsula (also known as the Cherbourg Peninsula). Edward stayed there for several days while the large army came ashore.
Devastation of Normandy
Edward III's army began their march east across Normandy attacking and destroying French towns as they went. Those towns that did not surrender were shown no mercy and when they fell to the English many of the inhabitants were killed. Other towns surrendered to avoid bloodshed. Many hostages were taken and shipped back to England so that ransom money could be demanded. The English fleet sailed along the coast at the same time destroying French ships and attacking ports os they went.
Edward III crosses the Seine
King Philippe VI of France had ordered bridges across the Seine to be destroyed so that Edward III could not cross the river. Edward marched south towards Paris but at Poissy his engineers managed to repair the bridge. His army crossed the river and turned north.
Battle of Crecy
Under Edward III, the English forces defeated a superior French army at Crecy. Estimates give the English numbers at around 12,000 and a French contingent at 36,000. The English longbow made its mark in the battle against the armour of the French knights.
Siege of Calais
King Edward III began the siege of Calais that would last for almost a year. The governor of the town was man called Jean de Vienne. Edward demanded that the town should surrender but de Vienne refused, hoping that the town walls would hold the English out until King Philippe VI could come to their rescue. The English set up camp around the town and arranged for supplies to be brought from England. Wooden houses were also built to house the soldiers while they waited. Edward's wife Philippa even joined her husband at the camp.
Scots defeated at Neville's Cross
During the absence of Edward III while he was on campaign in France the Scottish king David II was approached by the French King Philippe VI to invade England. David II did so and advanced south but at Neville's Cross they met a band of monks, priests and land workers who managed to defeat the Scottish army. The band were led by the archbishop of York William Zouche. David II was captured and sent to London to be held at the Tower.
Kipchak Mongols besieging a Genoese trading centre on the Crimean coast catapulted their own dead into the city. The cause of death was a mysterious disease. The Genoese escaped by sea taking the 'Black Death' with them. They landed at Messina in Sicily. Black Death or Bubonic plague was spread by the rat flea. The name Black Death came from the colour of the swelling in the groin, armpit or neck. The person suffering went into a coma and dies soon after. In Europe an estimated 25 million people died. The plague reached Britain in 1348 and again in 1360 and the population may have been reduced by a half.
Calais captured by the English
Philippe VI finally arrived at Calais and challenged Edward III to a fight. Edward agreed but instead Philippe withdrew abandoning the town to the English. The governor, Jean de Vienne, had no other option other than to surrender the town to Edward. The town's leaders should have been executed according to siege rules because they refused to surrender when first asked, but Edward spared their lives and they were taken as hostages. The town of Calais was emptied of all its citizens and all their property was confiscated. Edward then made Calais English territory and sent word to England that anyone who wanted to live in Calais was welcome as long as they could get there quickly.
Edward accepts truce
Edward III accepted a truce with France as the efforts abroad had been exhausting and he returned to England. Edward's popularity was high as he had beaten the French at Crecy and in his absence the Scots had been defeated at Neville's Cross.
King Edward III of England established the Order of the Garter, the first English order of knighthood. It was based on the Knights of the Round Table and King Arthur. The name of the order is supposed to have originated when Edward III picked up a garter that had been lost on the dance floor during a banquet. Edward tied the garter around his own leg telling all present not to pass judgement. The garter may have belonged to the beautiful Joan of Kent. Joan was later to marry Edward's son, the Black Prince.
Construction of Maxstoke Castle
Building work on Maxstoke Castle in the Midlands was begun by William De Clinton.
Water gate built at Tower of London
At the Tower of London King Edward III had a water gate constructed at the base of the Cradle Tower. This allowed access to royal apartments directly from the river.
Creation of the Order of the Garter
On St. George's Day at Windsor Castle, the Order of the Garter was created. The initial Knights of the Order were: The King (Edward III); the Prince of Wales (The Black Prince); Henry, Earl (afterwards Duke) of Lancaster; Thomas Beauchamp, 3rd Earl of Warwick; the Captal of Buch; Ralph, Lord Stafford; Motacute, Earl of Salisbury; Sir Roger Mortimer; Sir John (afterward Lord) Lisle; Sir Bartholomew (afterwards Lord) Burghershe; Sir John Beauchamp; Lord Mohun; Sir Hugh Courtenay; Sir Thomas Holland; Lord Grey; Sir Richard FitzSimon; Sir Myles Stapleton; Sir Thomas Wales; Sir Hugh Wrottesley; Sir Neel Loryng; Sir John Chandos; Sir James Audley; Sir Otho Holland; Sir Henry Eam; Sir Sanchete d'Ambrichecourt; and Sir Walter Paveley.
The Plague reaches Paris
The steady progress of the Plague westard could not be stopped. The French king left the city for the relative safety of the countryside.But several of the royal family died including the King's niece Queen Jeanne of Navarre who had tended to the sick and had caught the illness herself.
The Plague reaches England
The plague reached the shores of England first at Melcombe Regis in Dorset. By winter of the year, the plague had reached London.
From the Chronicles of Meaux Abbey came the report saying 'Meaux Abbey suffered so severely that thirty-two monks, and seven conversi died, the majority being taken in the month of August.'
From the Chronicles of Meaux Abbey came the report saying 'during Lent, six days before Easter Sunday, there occurred an earthquake throughout the whole of England so great that the monks of Melsa were thrown so violently from their stalls that they all lay prostrate on the ground.'
The Plague is at its peak
The peak of the plague was reached in the summer of 1349. Estimates of a third of the population dying from the infection have been made but being accurate is very difficult.
Spanish fleet sail up English Channel
Spain had signed a naval treaty with France and a fleet of Spanish galleys sailed past France and up the English Channel attacking English ships as it went.