Abelard, Peter

Born: 1079 Died: 1142

eter Abelard was a French philosopher and teacher who taught at the schools in Paris including the important Notre-Dame school. Abelard had several arguments with his former teacher William of Champeaux and left Notre-Dame to set up his own school. When Abelard returned to teach at Notre-Dame he began an affair with Héloise who was the niece of Fulbert, a canon at Notre-Dame. Héloise had a child and the affair was discovered. To apologise for the affair, Abelard left Notre-Dame to become a Monk and Héloise became a nun. It was from her convent that Héloise sent a series of love letters to Abelard. Abelard left his monastery to become a hermit. He died and was buried at Paraclete near Nogent-sur-Seine in 1142. Héloise was buried next to him when she died in 1163.
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Adela (of Champagne)

Born: circa 1145 Died: 1206

dela, also known as Alix, was the third wife of King Louis VII, the King of France. The marriage took place only weeks after the death of Louis' second wife Constance of Castile. Louis needed a male heir to inherit the French throne and so far all his children had been girls. Their first child was a boy, Philip. Philip would become the next king of France and Adela acted as regent of France taking care of the country's affairs while Philip was away on Crusade.
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Adelard (of Bath)

Born: circa 1090 Died: circa 1160

orn in the late eleventh century, he studied and taught in France before going to Spain to learn Arabic. This allowed him to translate the Elements of Euclid. He travelled to Africa and Greece (learning the language) and Asia Minor. Back in England in 1130, he wrote several books on scientific information.
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Adrian (IV, Pope)

Died: 1159

drian IV was the Pope from 1154 to 1159. He was the only English Pope and his real name was Nicholas Breakspear. Adrian was born in England but went to Arles in France to perform his religious studies. Adrian became an Augustinian monk at a monastery at St. Rufus near Avignon in the southern France. He remained there for some time and became its abbot. His skills were recognised and was elevated to the position of bishop at Albano, a small distance from Rome. Adrian became a papal legate, a deputy who represented the Pope and sent on missions as an ambassador or messenger. It was on a mission to Scandinavia that Adrian's talents as a negotiator and organiser were also recognised. In 1154 Adrian was elected to the position of Pope. A Papal Bull issued by Adrian allowed Henry II to attack and rule Ireland. After his death in 1159 an argument caused a schism, or split with the church, as to who should become the next Pope.
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YearMonthEvent
1155   Plan for the conquest of Ireland approved
 A plan to conquer Ireland was approved by Pope Adrian IV in a Papal Bull (a formal proclamation issued by the Pope) called Laudabiliter. 
1159 Sep  Alexander III becomes Pope
 Alexander III was elected to the position of Pope after the death of Adrian IV. Alexander was supported by the English and the French, but the Germans supported and elected a second Pope known as Octavian. 

Aed (King of Scotland 877 - 878)

Died: 878

ed was the son of Kenneth, ruler of the Scots. Aed became King of Scotland after the death of his brother Constantine. His reign only lasted for one year because the Scottish throne was also claimed by Aed's cousin Giric. Giric killed Aed and became King of Scotland. It is possible that Giric sharing the throne with Eochaid, a ruler of Strathclyde.
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YearMonthEvent
877   Death of Constantine I
 Invaders from Scandinavia were a constant threat to the Scots and an invasion in 877 resulted in the death of the Scottish King, Constantine I. He was succeeded by his his brother Aed. 
878   Giric becomes the Scottish monarch
 After the death of Aed, Giric (his cousin?) became the Scottish ruler. 

Aelred (of Rievaulx)

Born: 1109 Died: 1166

elred was an English historian and was born in Hexham in Northumbria. He was a steward to Kind David of Scotland before becoming a monk at Rievaulx Abbey. At Rievaulx he devoted himself to writing historical works. He became the Abbot at Rievaulx Abbey.
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Aethelbert (King of Wessex 860-866)

Died: 866

he third (or second) son of Aethelwulf King of Wessex. Aethelbert became ruler of Kent after the death of his father and ruler of Wessex after his elder brother Athelbald who died in 860. His reign was short, only lasting for six years and those six years were plagued by Viking invasions. He was succeeded by his brother Aethelred.

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Father: Aethelwulf (King of Wessex 839-858) ( - d.858)
Mother: Osburga
Aethelbert (King of Wessex 860-866) ( - d.866)

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Father: Aethelwulf (King of Wessex 839-858) ( - d.858)
Mother: Osburga

YearMonthEvent
860   Ethelbert becomes King of Wessex
 Upon the death of his elder brother, Ethelbert became the King of Wessex.[1] 
865   The 'Great Army' invade
 A large army of Danes landed in East Anglia led by King Ivar the 'Boneless' and King Halfdan. No attempts were made to get rid of the invaders.[1] 
   Ethelred becomes King of Wessex
 Following the death of his elder brother, Ethelred became the King of Wessex. Alfred (the Great) became his deputy.[1] 

Aethelred (of Mercia)

Died: 911

ethelred of Mercia married Edward the Elder's sister Aethelfead and assisted Edward the Elder in battles against the Danes. After Aethelred's death in 911 Aethelfead ruled Mercia in her own right and together with her brother continued the fight against the Danes and Danelaw until her death in 918.

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Aethelred (of Mercia) ( - d.911)
+Athelflaed (Lady of the Mercians) (b.869 - d.918)

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Alcuin (of York)

Born: circa 735 Died: 804

lcuin taught at the University of York and was an important adviser to Charlemagne. Alcuin was a writer an poet and compiled a series of books on the lives of the saints.
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804 May  Death of Alcuin of York
 Alcuin of York died at the monastery of St. Martin's at Tours. 

Alexander (III, Pope)

Died: 1181

lexander III was elected as the Pope in 1159 after the death of Pope Adrian IV. His election was only supported by the English and French. In Germany another Pope or antipope was elected called Victor IV also known as Octavian. The dispute between the two Popes lead to the exile of Alexander to Sens in France. Alexander supported Archbishop Thomas Becket in his conflicts with King Henry II of England and after Becket's death canonized him in 1173.
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YearMonthEvent
1159 Sep  Alexander III becomes Pope
 Alexander III was elected to the position of Pope after the death of Adrian IV. Alexander was supported by the English and the French, but the Germans supported and elected a second Pope known as Octavian. 
1164 Oct 6  Council of Northampton
 Council of Northampton held to discuss the Welsh rebellion and the Constitution of Clarendon; the Council tried Thomas Becket (8.10) and found him guilty of perjury (failure to appear at Council) and heresy; he was sentenced to forfeiture of his possessions; the sentence was quashed by Alexander III and Becket fled to Lincoln (14.10) and then France (2.11).[2] 
 Nov 2  Becket flees to France
 Becket fled to France and sought the protection of Pope Alexander III, who himself was in exile.[2] 
1173 Feb 21  Becket canonised
 Becket was canonized by Pope Alexander III. His shrine at Canterbury Cathedral became extremely wealthy due to the number of pilgrims visiting it and donating money.[3] 

Alexander (IV, Pope)

Died: 1261

ope from 1254 until his death in 1261. Alexander IV agreed to absolve Henry III from the Provisions of Oxford and allow the English king to regain the power that the Barons had taken from him.
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YearMonthEvent
1254   Alexander IV becomes Pope
  
1261 Qtr 1  Absolved from the Provisions of Oxford
 Pope Alexander IV agreed to absolve Henry from the Provisions of Oxford.[4] 
 May 25  Death of Pope Alexander IV
 Urban IV was elected Pope after the death of Pope Alexander IV. 

Alfonso (VIII, King of Castile)

Born: 1155 Died: 1214

lfonso VIII, king of Castile reigned from 1158 until his death in 1214. His most remembered legacy was that of the defeat of the Almohads, a powerful Muslim dynasty that had taken control in northern Africa and southern Spain. At the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 Alfonso, along with a coalition of Christian leaders, defeated the Almohads and the Muslim-held lands in Spain were retaken. Alfonso married Eleanor of England, the daughter of King Henry II.
YearMonthEvent
1212   Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa
 At the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 Alfonso, along with a coalition of Christian leaders, defeated the Almohads and the Muslim-held lands in Spain were retaken. 

Alfred (Second son of Aethelred)

Died: 1036

lfred was the second son of Aethelred and Emma. Alfred was murdered in 1036(7) when he came to England to help his mother's campaign against Harold Harefoot and Earl Godwine.
YearMonthEvent
1036   Alfred is murdered by Godwine
 Both Edward the Confessor and Alfred, his younger brother, came to England at different times during this year to try and take back the English throne. Edward's attempt failed. Some time later Alfred landed in England but his army was met by Earl Godwine and was defeated. Alfred was captured and killed by the Earl. 

Alice (Daughter of Eleanor of Aquitaine)

Born: 1150

lice (Alix) was the second daughter of King Louis VII of France and Eleanor of Aquitaine.

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Father: Louis (VII, The Young, King of France, 1137-1180) (b.1121 - d.1180)
Mother: Eleanor (of Aquitaine) (b.1122 - d.1204)
Alice (Daughter of Eleanor of Aquitaine) (b.1150 - )

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YearMonthEvent
1169   Betrothal of Richard and Alice
 A marriage agreement was arranged between Prince Richard and the daughter of King Louis VII, bringing peace between England and France.[5] 

Alys (Daughter of Louis VII)

lys was the daughter of King Louis VII of France and Constance of Castile his second wife. A marriage agreement was arranged between Alys and the son of Henry II, Richard who would become Richard I, the Lionheart. Alys was only a child and until she was old enough to be married lived under the protection of the English King. The marriage never took place and Richard married Berengaria. Alys' half-brother Philip II of France fined Richard for not marrying her.
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Amalric (I, King of Jerusalem, 1162 - 1174)

Born: 1136 Died: 11 Jul 1174

on of Fulk V, count of Anjou and King of Jerusalem. Amalric became King of Jerusalem after the death of his elder brother Baldwin.

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Father: Fulk (V, of Anjou) ( - d.1143)
Mother: Melisende (of Jerusalem) (b.1105 - d.1161)
Amalric (I, King of Jerusalem, 1162 - 1174) (b.1136 - d.1174)
+Comnena, Maria (b.1154 - )

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YearMonthEvent
1162 Feb 10  Death of Baldwin III
 Baldwin, the king of Jerusalem died. He was succeeded by his brother Amalric.[6] 

Arthur (Prince of Wales)

Born: 20 Sep 1486 Died: 2 Apr 1502

rthur was the eldest son of King Henry VII and his wife, Elizabeth of York. He was born at Winchester. Arthur was very well educated and taught partially by John Rede, an important member of court and Member of Parliament. Even though he was still a young child marriage negotiations were begun between himself and Catherine of Aragon as early as 1488. Catherine was a year older than Arthur, being born in late 1485. After several years of delay the marriage proposals were finally agreed and in May 1501 Catherine left her home to travel to England. After several months of travelling Catherine arrived at Plymouth on October 2nd, 1501. The pair were married at St. Paul's Cathedral on Novermber 14th of the same year. It was at Ludlow Castle that they set up their court. Arthur had suffered from health problems as a child and was not as strong as his younger brother Henry, the future King Henry VIII, and in the early months of 1502 at the age of fifteen he died before the marriage to Catherine was consummated.
YearMonthEvent
1486 Sep  Birth of Prince Arthur
 Elizabeth gave birth to a son which was named Arthur..The child was born several weeks early. Arthur was heir to the English throne. 
Early Modern Period (1500-1800)
1501 Oct 2  Catherine of Aragon arrives
 After several months of travelling Catherine of Aragon finally arrived at Plymouth in preparation for her marriage to Prince Arthur. 
 Nov 14  Prince Arthur marries Catherine of Aragon
 After several days of celebration and reception Prince Arthur and Catherine of Aragon were married at St. Paul's Cathedral.[7] 
1502 Jan  Prince Arthur moves to Ludlow
 Prince Arthur took up his position as governor of the Welsh Marches and moved to Ludlow Castle. He was accompanied by his wife Catherine of Aragon. 
 Apr  Prince Arthur dies
 Prince Arthur fell ill at Ludlow with consumption, an illness that he seems to have suffered from a lot during his life. The illness was severe and he died. 
 Oct  Henry becomes Duke of Cornwall
 The title of Duke of Cornwall is given to the eldest son of the reigning monarch or their sons. When Arthur died without any male offspring the title was transferred to Henry (VIII) 

Arundel, Thomas

Born: 1353 Died: 1414

homas Arundel was the Chancellor of England and Archbishop of Canterbury. In Richard II's reign Arundel served twice as Chancellor and was also the Archbishop of Canterbury from 1396. His appointment was short lived as a year later he was exiled as part of the conflict with the Lords Appellant. Arundel returned to England with Henry IV's rise to power and was once again made Chancellor from 1407. He was temporarily deposed in 1410 but regained the post in 1412.
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1397   Thomas Arundel exiled
 Shortly after becoming Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Arundel was exiled by Richard II because of his support for the lords appellant who opposed the King's misrule of the country. 

Aske, Robert

Died: 1537

obert Aske was the leader of a rebellion against Henry VIII. Aske's rebellion is known as the Pilgrimage of Grace and it began in October 1536.
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YearMonthEvent
Early Modern Period (1500-1800)
1536 Oct 21  Pilgrimage of Grace
 Following the earlier Lincoln rebellion, a larger rebellion began further north in Yorkshire. This rebellion again protested against Henry VIII's unpopular policies and advisers. They wanted Henry to put a stop to the dissolution of the monasteries and they wanted the removal of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer and Henry's adviser Thomas Cromwell. The leader of the rebellion was Robert Aske, a lawyer and excellent organiser. Somewhere between 30,000 and 35,000 rebels were involved and they took control of Pontefract Castle which fell to them without any resistance. 
 Oct 27  Meeting with rebels
 The Duke of Norfolk met with leaders of the rebels on Doncaster Bridge where their demands were heard. The Duke asked the rebels to disband promising that their demands would be considered. The rebels complied with the request to disband and returned home. Henry VIII made no attempt to consider their demands. 
 Dec  Rebels list demands
 At Pontefract the rebel leaders presented a list of demands. The rebels were assured of free pardons. 
1537 Qtr 1  More uprisings
 Although the main leaders of the Pilgrimage of Grace were remaining peaceful and waiting for Henry VIII to look into their complaints others were not so trusting. Several uprisings occurred in the north east of England where Carlisle was besieged. The Duke of Norfolk was able to deal with the rebels and many of those suspected of taking part were hung in their villages as an example to the rest. 
 Summer  Rebel leaders executed
 Henry VIII summonsed the leaders of the Pilgrimage of Grace to him in London where the rebels believed they would discuss terms with the King as they had been promised free pardons. Instead, Henry had the rebels arrested. They were sent back to their home lands where they were tried and executed. 

Athelbald (King of Wessex 858-860)

Died: 860

ing of Wessex from 858 until he died in 860. First (or second if Athelstan was a son) of Aethelwolf.

Family Tree Details
Father: Aethelwulf (King of Wessex 839-858) ( - d.858)
Mother: Osburga
Athelbald (King of Wessex 858-860) ( - d.860)

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Father: Aethelwulf (King of Wessex 839-858) ( - d.858)
Mother: Osburga

YearMonthEvent
858   Ethelbald becomes King of Wessex
 Unhappy with his father's marriage to Judith and absence from the country, Ethelbald, Ethelwulf's second son claims the kingdom of Wessex for himself. When Ethelwulf later dies, Ethelbald marries Judith, his stepmother.[1] 
860   Ethelbert becomes King of Wessex
 Upon the death of his elder brother, Ethelbert became the King of Wessex.[1] 

Athelflaed (Lady of the Mercians)

Born: circa 869 Died: 918

aughter of Alfred the Great and sister of Edward the Elder of Wessex. Athelflaed married a Mercian and raised Athelstan the future King of the English. Athelflaed also assisted her brother Edward the Elder in battle against the Danes and Danelaw. After the death of her husband, Athelflaed was known as 'Lady of the Mercians' as she ruled over Mercia in her own right. After her death in 918 Edward the Elder was able to extend his rule of Mercia as well as Wessex.

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Father: ALFRED (The Great, King of Wessex 871-899) (b.849 - d.899)
Mother: Ealhswith ( - d.905)
Athelflaed (Lady of the Mercians) (b.869 - d.918)
+Aethelred (of Mercia) ( - d.911)

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YearMonthEvent
912   towns fortified at Shrewsbury and Bridgenorth
 Athelflaed, Lady of the Mercians, built a burh first at Shrewsbury and then at Bridgenorth.The defences were needed to protect the people from the Danes.[8] 
913   Tamworth fortified against the Danes
 Athelflaed, the Lady of the Mercians, fortified the towns of Tamworth and Stafford against attack from the Danes. [9] 
914   Warwick founded by Athelflaed
 Athelflaed, the Lady of the Mercians, founded the town of Warwick at the important river crossing across the River Avon. The town was fortified againt attack from the Danes. [9] 

Athelwold

Died: 905

thelwolrd (or Ethelwold) was the son of Aethelred, king of Wessex. and the nephew of Alfred the Great. When Alfred died in 899 the control of Wessex was disputed between Athelwold and Edward the Elder, the son of Alfred. Edward was supported in the south of the country while Athelwold found support with the Danes in Northumbria who accepted him as their over-lord.

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Father: Aethelred (King of Wessex 866-871) ( - d.871)
Mother: Wulfthryth
Athelwold ( - d.905)

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Father: Aethelred (King of Wessex 866-871) ( - d.871)
Mother: Wulfthryth

YearMonthEvent
905   Athelwold killed
 Athelwold and Eric the Dane were killed in battle against Edward the Elder.[10]