Henry (VI, King of England 1422-1461, 1470-1471)

1421 Dec 6  Birth of Henry (VI)
 Prince Henry (later Henry VI) was born at Windsor. 
1422 Sep 1  1yrsHenry VI becomes king
 Henry VI became king of England upon the death of his father. Henry was less than one year old when his father died and so England was governed by a number of protectors. These included Henry V's brothers, John Duke of Bedford and Humphrey Duke of Gloucester, along with Henry Beaufort the bishop of Winchester. 
 Oct 21  Charles VI of France dies
 Charles VI of France died and was buried in the Saint Denis Basilica. Henry VI of England was proclaimed king of France and John Duke of Bedford was appointed regent.[1]

Episode: Henry V - The Hundred Years War  
1429 Nov 6  8yrsHenry VI crowned King of England
 Although Henry was still too young to reign he was crowned as Henry VI, King of England in response to the Duke of Bedford's concerns over the events in France. Henry was crowned at Westminster Abbey.

Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc  
1431 Dec  10yrsHenry VI crowned as King of France
 Henry was crowned King of France at Notre Dame in Paris by Cardinal Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester.

Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc  
1432 Feb 9  11yrsHenry VI returns home
 Henry VI landed at Dover.[2] 
1433   12yrsLicence to build Alnwick town walls
 King Henry VI granted a licence to build the town walls around the town of Alnwick.It took many years due to problems raising the funds required. 
1435 Sep 14  14yrsDuke of Bedford dies
 John, Duke of Bedford, died in Rouen. Henry was still too young to rule and Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, took over as regent until Henry was old enough to rule England unaided. Gloucester was not popular and was the cause of unrest with Parliament.

Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc  
1436 May 1  15yrsRichard, Duke of York is appointed Lieutenant-general
 Richard, Duke of York, is appointed lieutenant-general in France by the king, Henry VI. 
1437 Nov  16yrsHenry VI rules unaided
 Henry VI takes control of England when he is declared old enough to rule unaided. 
1438   17yrsOxford University founded
 All souls college at Oxford was founded by King Henry VI.[2] 
1440   19yrsEton College, Cambridge founded
 King Henry VI founded Eton College at Cambridge.[2] 
1441   20yrsKing's College, Cambridge founded
 King Henry VI founded King's College, Cambridge.[2] 
1442 Dec  21yrsHenry VI's legal majority
 At the age of 21 Henry VI was legally old enough to rule unaided without assistance of a guardian.[2] 
1444 May 24  23yrsBetrothal of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou
 To ensure peace between England and France the marriage between Henry VI and Margaret was arranged. [2] 
1445 Apr 23  24yrsMarriage of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou
 The marriage of the King of England to Margaret of Anjou had been arranged as part of the treaty signed at Tours to ensure peace between England and France.[3] 
 Jul  French Embassy in London
 A French Embassy arrived in London to meet the English King and confirm terms of a peace treaty after the marriage of Henry to Margaret of Anjou.

Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc  
1446   25yrsHenry VI receives the Golden Rose
 Pope Eugenius IV granted the gift of the Golden Rose to King Henry VI for his devotion to both the Church and education. The Golden Rose was a solid gold ornament in the shape of a rose.[2] 
1447 Feb 23  26yrsDeath of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester
 A parliament was held at Bury St. Edmunds where the Duke of Gloucester was accused of treason and arrested. It was said that he was planning an uprising against the king. The accusations were made falsely by the Duke of Suffolk. Gloucester died only days after his arrest. 
1449 Nov  28yrsSiege of Rouen
 A large army of French soldiers were able to retake the cities in Normandy that had been captured by the English. Rouen, the last to fall, was retaken in November after a siege of almost three weeks. This was a major victory for Charles, the French king and a disaster for Henry VI.[4]

Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc  
1450 Jan  29yrsThe Duke of Suffolk is sent to the Tower
 The Duke of Suffolk was accused by Parliament of using his position close to the king to influence matters for his and his followers own ends. He was also accused of increasing his own wealth at the expense of the king and perverting the course of justice. Suffolk was murdered on his way to exile in May of the same year. 
 Jan  Murder at Portsmouth
 Adam Moleyns, the Bishop of Chichester and Lord Privy Seal, had been sent to Portsmouth by the king to pay the wages of soldiers and sailors who had not been paid for some time. But the anger of the soldiers was so great that they turned on him and he was murdered.[5] 
 May  Revolt in Kent
 Jack Cade was the leader of a rebellion that began in Kent and elsewhere in the south east of England. The rebels' grievances were directed at the king's councillors who were using their influence on the king for their own gains.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 May  Death of William de la Pole
 William de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk was accused by Parliament of being the cause of the country's problems. Suffolk was arrested and imprisoned. The King allowed the Duke to be banished rather than executed but as he left the country he was attacked and killed.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Jun  London ransacked by the rebels
 The rebels under the command of Jack Cade defeated a section of King Henry's army at Sevenoaks and entered London. The rebels ransacked the city and after crossing London Bridge to the south were prevented crossing back to the north by angry Londoners. The rebels were defeated and fled.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Jul  Jack Cade killed
 After the defeat of the rebels in London Jack Cade fled but was pursued. He was caught and killed while resisting arrest.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
1451 Jun 30  30yrsBordeaux falls to the French
 The port city of Bordeaux fell to the French and English control was lost.

Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc  
 Qtr 4  York starts an uprising
 The Duke of York writes to supporters in Norfolk asking for their support in an uprising against the King.[6]

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
1452 Feb  31yrsThe Duke of York marches on London
 The Duke of York gathered an army and marched on London intent on persuading the king to remove Somerset from power, King Henry took an army north to Northampton to prevent Yorkist supporters in the east joining York in the west. The king also sent word to the city of London to not allow York to enter, Learning that he was refused entry to the city the Duke continued south and crossed the the river Thames at Kingston. York moved his army to Dartford while the king came back south to London. [7]

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Mar  The Duke of York surrenders
 The Queen had raised an army and with the King they met the Duke of York at Dartford. Outnumbered, York disbanded his army and surrendered to the King. He was taken to London and later at St. Paul's Cathedral he was forced to swear an oath saying he would not oppose the King.[7] 
 Nov  Edmund and Jasper created Earls
 The two sons of Owen Tudor, Edmund and Jasper were made Earls. Edmund became the Earl of Richmond and Jasper became the Earl of Pembroke. 
1453 Jul  32yrsEnglish defeated at Castillion
 Sir John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury and his army were totally destroyed by the French as they attempted to regain control of the region around Bordeaux. This is regarded as the last event in the Hundred Years War.

Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc  
 Aug  The King's health suffers
 From August 1453 until the end of 1454, the King's mental health was such that he was unable to conduct the day-to-day government of the country. The illness was some kind of mental condition possibly inherited from his grandfather Charles VI of France who also suffered from bouts of madness.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Oct 13  Prince Edward of Lancaster is born
 Edward of Westminster, also known as Edward of Lancaster, King Henry's and Margaret of Anjou's only son, was born at Westminster.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Nov  Somerset sent to the Tower
 Edmund Beaufort, the duke of Somerset was unpopular and only kept his position of power with the support of the King. While Henry VI was ill Somerset was sent to the Tower of London.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
1454 Mar 27  33yrsRichard, Duke of York made Protector
 With the King unable to govern, the queen with the support of the powerful Neville Earls gave Richard, Duke of York the position of 'Protector of England'.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Dec  Henry's health returns
 Henry returned to health and Edward, the Duke of York was removed from the position of Protector.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
1455 Feb  34yrsSomerset released from the Tower
 With Henry back in power the Duke of Somerset was released from captivity.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 May 21  The Yorkists are summoned
 A council was called and the Edward and Warwick were summoned to attend. Concerned that the reason they have been called to attend was that they would be punished, the Yorkists decided to demand a meeting of their own with the King at St. Albans.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 May 22  Battle of St. Albans
 The King had by his side at St. Albans the Dukes of Somerset and Buckingham, Lords Pembroke, Northumberland and Devon and around 2,000 Lancastrian men. They tried to hold the town against the Yorkists led by Salisbury and Warwick but Warwick was able to enter the town through an unguarded spot and attack the flanks of the Lancastrian barricades. Although this battle was small it left the Duke of Somerset dead along with Lord Northumberland and Clifford. As a result of this victory power again swung to the Yorkists although support from the Barons was not total. Richard, Duke of York, again became Protector of the Realm and the powerful position of Captain of Calais was given to the Earl of Warwick.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Oct  Henry VI becomes ill once more
 King Henry VI suffered another bout of mental illness. This time to last until February of the following year.[4]

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
1456 Feb 25  35yrsDuke of York resigns as protector
 Henry Vi again came around from a bout of mental illness and Richard, Duke of York, was relieved of position of protector of the realm.[4]

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
1458 Mar 24  37yrsLoveday march
 In an attempt to bring both Yorkists and Lancastrians together in peace, King Henry led a march of both parties to a ceremony at St. Paul's Cathedral. Could have been on the 25th of March.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
1459 Oct 12  38yrsBattle of Ludford Bridge
 The Earl of Warwick with a force from Calais reached Ludlow and the combined army of the Yorkists attacked the King's army at Ludford Bridge near Ludlow. The men from Calais refused to fight their king and a weak Yorkist army was defeated. Richard Duke of York and his younger son escaped and fled to Ireland while Salisbury, Warwick and Edward of March (later Edward IV) fled to Calais.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
1460 Jul 10  39yrsBattle of Northampton
 The Lancastrians's Court was in Coventry at the time of the Yorkist rebels entering London. When news reached them, the Lancastrians moved south to Northampton to meet the rebels. The Yorkists led by the Earl of Warwick wanted to talk but the Lancastrians led by the Duke of Buckingham wanted to fight. Although the Lancastrians had less men than the Yorkists, they did have control of a stronger position. The Yorkists managed to defeat the Lancastrians due to a section of the Lancastrian army led by Lord Grey of Ruthin moving away allowing the Yorkists through. Orders were given that the King and ordinary men should be spared, while the knights and lords should be killed. When the fighting was over the casualties were light, but the Lancastrian leaders, Buckingham, Shrewsbury and Egremont were dead and the King was captured.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Oct  Duke of York claims throne
 Richard, Duke of York returned from Ireland to claim the throne of England as a direct descendant of Edward III. The Lords refused to abandon Henry VI and Parliament agreed he should remain King until his death. Then Richard or his heir should become the next king of England.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
1461 Feb 17  40yrsSecond Battle of St. Albans
 The Lancastrians army led by the Queen met the Yorkist army led by Warwick at St. Albans. The Yorkist army was split in two and during the battle sections of the Yorkists defected to the Queen's side. The Yorkists were defeated and Warwick escaped. The King, who had been travelling with the Yorkists, was freed and he was reunited with his wife and son.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Feb 27  Yorkists enter London
 Edward and Warwick were allowed to enter the city of London. The citizens of London had refused to let the Queen enter and so she returned north with the King.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
1463 Jul  42yrsSiege of Norham Castle
 Queen Margaret, Henry VI and Scottish support besieged the castle at Norham. King Edward failed to react to the problem and it was left to the Earls of Warwick and Northumberland to come to the castle's rescue. Henry, Margaret and the Scots fled.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
1465 Summer  44yrsHenry VI captured
 Henry had been helped by Lancastrian supporters in the north but was finally captured at Waddington Hall. He was taken to London and put in the Tower.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
1470 Oct 6  49yrsHenry restored as King
 Warwick and Clarence entered London and Henry VI was released from the Tower of London. Henry was crowned King of England for the second time.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Dec 13  Marriage of Edward of Lancaster and Anne Neville
 The marriage between Edward of Lancaster, the son of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou, to Anne Neville, the daughter of Richard Neville the Kingmaker was a marriage to cement the agreement that Richard and Margaret would support each other and try to get Henry VI back on the English throne. The marriage took place in France at the Chateau d'Amboise where Margaret and Edward were exiled.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
1471 May 21  50yrsThe murder of Henry VI
 Edward arrived back in London and that night Henry VI was murdered at the Tower of London.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  

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