Robert was the son Walter, the 6th High Steward of Scotland, and Marjorie Bruce the daughter of Robert I, King of the Scots. Robert was born in 1316. Because it was thought that Robert I would die without an male heir it was decided that his daughter's son, Robert, should become king if circumstances did not change. Circumstances did change with the birth of a boy to Robert I's second wife Elizabeth. The boy became David II, king of Scotland after the death of Robert I. It was not until the death of David II in 1371 that Robert, at the age of fifty-five, became King of Scotland. Robert had many children, possibly twenty or more. The marriage to his first wife, Elizabeth Mure, was considered invalid as they were closely related but his second marriage to Euphemia Ross, was declared legal. The problems other the legitimacy of his children would prove to be a source of dispute for his descendants. Robert died at the age of seventy-four and was succeeded by his son John, Earl of Carrick, who took the name Robert III.
The Count of Champagne was preparing to travel to the Holy Land when he received a letter from the bishop of Chartres. The letter stated that the count was planning to join 'la milice du Christ' (the original name for the Templars ?). This seems to indicate that the order existed at this time, as the letter speaks of chastity, something not usually expected of a Crusader.
Hugh de Payens may have been granted the land for the first Temple Church in London at this time. Consisting of an orchard, a cemetery, a round church. The position was possibly at the end of Chancery Lane. The temple was moved in 1161.
During late 1128 and early 1129, Hughes de Payen visited both Scotland and England where he was apparently donated both land and money. At this time, in London, the original Temple in Holborn outside Holborn bars was built. It consisted of gardens, orchard, boundary ditch and cemetery, and was the first round church. In 1161 the site was moved to the New Temple between Fleet street and the Thames.
The Council of Troyes took place. Its aim was to consider the claim of the Knights Templars represented by Hughes de Payen and Andre de Montbard and was brought about by Bernard of Clairvaux. The Council provided papal approval for the Templars and resulted in many new recruits joining the order. The Order was provided it with its first rule, the Latin Rule.
To raise funds and attract new recruits Hugh de Payen travelled around France starting with a visit to Fulk of Anjou who had become an associate member of the Knights Templar order in 1120. Support and donations across Europe for the Templars increased. The visits lasted during April and May.
The Knights Templars appear in the North East of Spain possibly as early as 1130 and were receiving privileges from Alfonso I. The Templars may have helped the rulers of Catalonia and Aragon regain land from the Moors. Alfonso I granted the Templars exemption of tax on a fifth of the wealth taken from the Moors and on his death he left a third of his kingdom to them. This was later successfully contested but the Templars were given land in Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, Mallorca and Andalucia.
A Papal Bull issued by Pope Innocent II, a former Cistercian monk and proteacutegeacute of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, stated that the Knight Templars should owe allegiance to no one other than the Pope himself. This meant that the Templars answered to no one not even Kings or other political or religious authorities.
Henry had besieged a fort that King Stephen had built at Crowmarsh on the banks of the Thames opposite Wallingford Castle. An agreement of succession of Henry II after Stephen was concluded and witnessed by the English Knights Templars. King Stephen accepted Henry of Normandy, Anjou and Aquitaine as heir to the throne and in turn Henry recognised Stephen as King. Stephen made his barons do homage to Henry in January of 1154.
The Knights Templars were known to be present in the Italian port of Lucca home of silk trading. They may have been present from the 1130's. Also present in the Adriatic ports of Barletta, Bari, Brindisi, Siponto and Messina.
The Christian Army of Jerusalem was beaten by Turkish forces at the Battle of Hattin. Guy of Lusignan was King of Jerusalem at this time. All Knights Templars and Hospitallers who survived the battle were executed afterwards. The Archbishop of Tyre, a man called Josias, was dispatched from the city to Europe to inform the Pope and European leaders of the disaster that had taken place and to ask for help.
The Sultan of Babylon abandoned plans to attack Acre at the arrival of Edward. Edward moved on to Nazarus where large numbers of Muslims were killed. Becoming ill, Edward returned to Acre where he stayed for 18 months. The fortifications of Acre being too strong for any attackers, an assassination attempt was made on Edward by a messenger from the Emir of Jaffa. The messengers had become a regular occurrence and one managed to approach Edward while he was alone and unarmed. The assassin attempted to stab Edward with a poisoned knife, but Edward saved himself and killed the assassin instead. Edward did suffer a cut and the poison took hold. Luckily, a skilful doctor cut away the poisoned area and, with drugs sent by the master of the Knights Templar, Edward survived.
King Philippe of France ordered the arrest of all Knight Templars in France. The order to arrest the Templars was sent out several weeks before the date possibly giving the Templars time to hide their wealth.
William Courtenay was elected the new archbishop of Canterbury by the Kentish rebels who crowded into the church. The previous archbishop was in London with the king and was to be beheaded by the rebels. The Essex section of the revolt burnt and sacked a Hospitaller commandery that had previously belonged to the Templars called Cressing Temple.
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