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Ferdinand (II, King of Aragon 1479-1516)
Born: 1452 Died: 1516
Christopher Columbus signed an agreement with Ferdinand and Isabella, the King and Queen of Spain, He specified that he should be given ten percent of any materials that he found on his explorations, for example spices, gems, gold and silver. He also specified that he would fund one eighth of the expedition if in return he received an eighth of the profits. He also wanted to be made Viceroy of all lands that he discovered.
At Venice it was decided to put a force together to remove King Charles of France from Italy. It was signed by the Pope, Ferdinand of Aragon, Maximilian the Holy Roman Emperor, the Ruler of Milan and also had the backing of Venice itself.
Pope Julius II gave permission for the marriage between Catherine of Aragon and Henry VIII. The legality of the marriage was in question because Catherine had been married to Henry's elder brother Arthur.
Fitz Osbern, William (Earl of Hereford)
Odo,the Bishop or Bayeux, became William the Conqueror's deputy in England and was assisted by William Fitz Osbern until Osbern's death in 1071. Odo also became the Earl of Kent and his wealth and land became considerable.
William Fitz Osbern built the hall at Chepstow Castle.
Ranulf Flambard is made the Bishop of Durham by William Rufus.
Robert Duke of Normandy landed at Portsmouth with an army and marched up to Alton on the way to London. Here he and King Henry I signed the Treaty of Alton where Robert gave up his claim to the throne of England in return for 3 thousand marks a year. The treaty also ensured that Robert's supporters would not be punished.
Francis (I, King of France 1515-1547)
King Louis XII of France died at the age of 52 leaving Mary a widow. His nephew, Francis, became the next king of France.
The Treaty of London or Universal Peace was signed in London between the major European countries, England, France, Burgundy and many more. For Cardinal Wolsey this treaty was a plan to produce a peaceful Europe. The treaty stated that the countries must not attack one another and if they did the other countries would come to the aid of those being attacked. Within the treaty was the agreement that Mary, the 2 year-old daughter of King Henry VIII, would marry the French dauphin.
The Field of the Cloth of Gold was a meeting between King Henry VIII and King Francis I of France somewhere between Guines and Ardres near Calais. The meeting included a series of tournaments and jousts. The extravagant nature of the event giving the meeting its name.
The Treaty of Bruges was conducted in secrecy at Bruges between King Charles V of France and Thomas Wolsey. In the terms of the treaty Wolsey promised Charles that King Henry VIII would join him in a joint campaign against France and Francis I. The meeting was held in secret because England was supposed to be a mediator in the dispute between Charles and Francis. The joint attacks of France would have to wait until March or May of 1523.
Francis I, the King of France, died at Rambouillet Castle. He was succeeded by his son Henry.
Fulk (I, the Red, Count of Anjou)
Born: circa 870 Died: 942
Fulk (II, the Good, Count of Anjou)
Fulk (Nerra, the Black, count of Anjou)
Fulk Nerra defeated the count of Brittany at the battle of Conquereuil.
Fulk Rechin (count of Anjou)
Born: 1043 Died: 1109
Fulk Rechin was at war with his brother Geoffrey. They were fighting over the lands of Anjou and Touraine which had been left to them by their uncle Geoffrey Martel, the count of Anjou. Fulk captured Geoffrey the Bearded and captured Anjou later taking the title of count.
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A Medieval Mystery
There appear to be some strange connections between the fourteenth century Old Wardour Castle and ancient stone circle Stonehenge.
Old Wardour Castle appears to be aligned to ancient sites in the Stonehenge landscape.
Stonehenge is aligned to the Summer Solstice. Old Wardour has a very similar alignment.
Could the builders of Old Wardour used mesaurements from Stonehenge to layout the geometrical keep?