Henry (III, King of England 1216-1272)

1207 Oct  Birth of Henry III
 Henry, the future king of England, was born at Winchester Castle. 
1216 Oct 28  9yrsKing Henry III Crowned
 King John's eldest son Henry was crowned King Henry III at the abbey church of Gloucester by Peter des Roches the Bishop of Winchester. The Earl of Pembroke, Earl Marshal of England (William Marshal), was declared Regent.

Episode: The First Barons' War  
 Nov 12  Revision to the Magna Carta
 The Magna Carta was revised at King Henry's Council at Bristol. 
1217 May 20  10yrsBattle of Lincoln
 Henry III's supporters defeated the forces belonging to Prince Louis and the rebel barons that were besieging the castle at Lincoln.

Episode: The First Barons' War  
 Sep 12  Treaty of Kingston
 The defeat of the French fleet left Prince Louis without much hope of taking the English throne. William Marshall blockaded London from the sea and land and at Lambeth Louis accepted peace terms. Louis waived his claim to the throne of England and should have restored Normandy to Henry but did not. Louis was paid 10,000 marks to ensure he left the country as soon as possible. William Marshall pardoned all those who had supported Louis.

Episode: The First Barons' War  
1218   11yrsTreaty of Worcester
 A peace treaty signed by King Henry III of England and Llywelyn the Great of Wales. The treaty confirmed Llywelyn's ownership of lands in Wales. 
1220 - 1240 13yrsHenry III's improvements at the Tower
 Henry III made large alterations to the Tower of London including new curtain walls, an improved water filled ditch and a water gate so the King could enter the castle directly from the Thames.[1] 
 May  Coronation of Henry III
 At his coronation in Westminster Abbey, Henry was reminded of his duties at king to maintain peace, defend the rights of the crown and to dispense justice where required. Henry was only around thirteen years old. The day before the coronation Henry laid the foundation stone of a new Lady Chapel at the Abbey. 
1224 Qtr 1  17yrsHenry reclaims castles
 All those castles that had been taken from King John were claimed back by Henry. Henry did not want to have untrustworthy Barons in control of strong castles. Fawkes de Breaute, one of the castle occupiers refused to relinquish his castle(s) and started a short rebellion. Stephen Langton and Hubert de Burgh dealt with Fawkes and the castles were handed over. (Need to find out which castles) 
 Jun  Bedford Castle siege
 The garrison at Bedford Castle, belonging to the rebel Falkes de Breute, refused to surrender to the Crown. Falkes had been repeated summonsed to account for his refusal to comply with agreement and when he refused to appear before the King the castle was surrounded. The castle fell when the keep was undermined. The garrison, who had surrendered the castle, were all hung on the order of the Justiciar. Falkes was allowed to leave the country but he lost all his possessions in doing so. Bedford Castle was badly damaged as a result.[2] 
1228   21yrsHenry III visits Woodstock.
 Henry spent time at the Palace of Woodstock.[3] 
1231 Aug 13  24yrsSimon de Montfort takes possession of his land
 Henry III ordered the sheriffs of Hampshire, Dorset and Wiltshire to give Simon de Montfort the possession of the lands of his father, the Earl of Leicester.[4] 
1232   25yrsHenry III removes Hubert de Burgh
 Henry III was persuaded to remove Hubert de Burgh. Hubert escaped from prison and took refuge in a church at Devizes. After being dragged from the church Hubert was re-imprisoned. The bishop of Salisbury forced the Government to return Hubert to the church where his supporters rescued him. 
   Peter des Rievaulx becomes treasurer
 Peter des Rievaulx, the nephew of the Peter des Roches, Bishop of Winchester, is made treasurer of the Henry III's household and keeper of the king's wardrobe. This moved him into an extremely important position for controlling the king's affairs.[4] 
   Oaks given to Gloucester
 Henry III donated one hundred and ten oaks from the forest of Dean to help in repair work at Gloucester church. 
1233   26yrsEarl of Pembroke's revolt
 Richard, Earl of Pembroke in alliance with Llywelyn of Wales join forces to fight Henry III. (Details required).[5] 
 Qtr 1  Baronian rebellion
 With the introduction of Peter de Roches as justiciar and the removal of Hubert de Burgh, the control of the Exchequer was under Poitevin control and possibly reversed the gains created by the Magna Carta in 1215. Henry was given control of central administration. This angered the Barons and a group led by Richard Marshall, Earl of Pembroke opposed the changes. Henry was able to deal with the Barons.[5] 
 Nov  Rout of Henry's army
 Henry III's army was camped at Grosmont Castle when they were attacked in the night by a force of Welsh and English rebels. Several of Henry's supporters were captured and the castle was returned to Hubert de Burgh, one of the rebels.[2] 
1235   28yrsHenry III at Woodstock
 Henry spent time at the Palace of Woodstock.[3] 
   Leopards at the Tower
 The Tower of London was home to a menagerie of exotic animals given to the monarchs of England as gifts. In this year three leopards were given to Henry III.[6] 
1236 Jan 4  29yrsKing Henry marries Eleanor of Provence
 Henry married Eleanor, one of four daughters of Raymond count of Provence. Eleanor was 14 years old. Simon de Montfort, as Lord High Steward, took care of the banquet and kitchen arrangements. The ceremony took place at Canterbury Cathedral.[4] 
1237   30yrsBeeston Castle claimed by Henry
 With the death of the last male heir of the Earldom of Cheshire, the earldom and castle at Beeston are claimed by Henry III. The castle was too important not to be in the hands of the crown. 
1238 Jan  31yrsSimon marries Henry's sister
 Simon de Montfort married Henry III's sister, Eleanor secretly. She had been married to William, Earl of Pembroke (son of William Marshal?), but he died early and left her with his wealth. The Barons were not happy with this arrangement as they were not consulted.[4] 
1239 Jun  32yrsEdward (I) is born
 Edward was the first son born to Henry III and Eleanor of Provence and was born at the Palace of Westminster. Simon de Montfort was chosen as his godfather by Henry III.[4] 
1241   34yrsHenry entertains at Woodstock
 Henry spent time at Woodstock and entertained Alexander. King of the Scots and the English nobility.[3] 
1242   35yrsHenry's finances are criticised
 Simon de Montfort is one a twelve man council who met to work out Henry's finances. Henry was criticised for his excesses.[4] 
   Henry tries to retake Poitou
 Isabella, Henry's mother persuaded Henry to mount an expedition to retake Poitou. Unable to get money directly from the barons, Henry resorted to extort money from them individually instead (how?). The expedition failed, and after being rescued the Earls of Leicester, Salisbury and Norfolk, Henry retreated to Bordeaux where they spent the winter.[4] 
1243 Spring  36yrsSimon de Montfort gets custody of Kenilworth castle
 Henry III bestowed the custody of Kenilworth castle to Simon de Montfort. Simon's wife Eleanor (Henry's sister) already owned Odiham Castle so Simon had two of the strongest fortresses in England under his control.[4] 
1245   38yrsRebuilding of Westminster Abbey
 Henry started the work of rebuilding Westminster Abbey as a tribute to Edward the Confessor.[7] 
1246   39yrsPeter de Savoy granted Pevensey Castle
 Henry III granted Pevensey castle to the Queen's uncle, Peter de Savoy, Earl of Richmond.  
   Beaulieu Abbey dedicated
 The Cistercial abbey at Beaulieu founded earlier by King John was dedicated in the presence of King Henry III, Queen Eleanor and Prince Edward.[8] 
1247   40yrsHenry receives a relic
 Henry received a relic from the patriarch of Jerusalem consisting of a portion of the blood of Christ in a crystal vase. Henry walked with the vase in his hands clothed in a course robe from the treasury in St. Paul's to the church of Westminster where mass was said. He was assisted by attendants on both sides in case he slipped and dropped the vase. 
1249   42yrsConstruction of Rye Castle
 Henry III ordered the construction of a castle at Rye.[9] 
1251 Nov 5  44yrsDedication of Hailes Abbey
 The King and Queen, with Richard, Earl of Cornwall (the King's brother) were at Hailes Abbey for its dedication ceremony. 
 Dec 26  Margaret marries Alexander III
 Henry III's daughter Margaret married Alexander III, king of the Scots, at York Minster. Both bride and groom were under the age of eleven at the time of the wedding. The festivities were huge as many members of the English and Scottish courts attended the wedding. 
1252   45yrsShrine to St. Ethelreda installed at Ely
 A shrine to St. Ethelreda was installed in the retrochoir of the cathedral. The ceremony was attended by Henry III and many other dignitaries. 
1253   46yrsEdmund Crouchback and Sicily
 Pope Innocent IV invested the young prince of England with the kingdom of Sicily. 
1254   47yrsHenry gives Edward his own lands
 Henry III granted Edward (I) areas of land including Crown lands in Wales, Ireland, the Channel Islands and Gascony. He was also given cities such as Bristol, Stamford and Grantham.These areas were on the edge of Henry's lands and the idea was to give Edward experience of governing lands of his own before becoming king. Edward was granted the three castles in the Marches, Skenfrith, White and Grosmont.[7] 
1256 Sep  49yrsThe Welsh invade the coastal plains
 Under their leader, Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, the welsh invaded the northern coastal areas that had agreed to English rule. Edward (I), who had been given the areas to administer himself by his father Henry III asked his father for help but Henry refused. 
1257   50yrsHenry and Edward reclaim the Lost Territories
 Henry III relents to his son's demands for assistance to fight the Welsh and joins him on a campaign to retake the territories lost to the Welsh under Llywelyn. 
1258   51yrsBarons confront Henry
 The seven were joined by many more Barons and Knights and they confronted Henry III at Westminster. Although armed, the Barons did leave their weapons outside the hall. Henry and his son Edward were forced to take the oath to join the commune of Barons and to accept their wished. Henry agreed to meet again with the Barons at Oxford in June.[10] 
 Apr  Henry asks for money
 The Pope offered the Sicilian crown for Henry's youngest son Edmund. The Pope wanted to add Sicily to the papal dominions. To raise the money required for such an expedition Henry met Parliament at Westminster. The barons who were not involved in the meeting forced Henry to meet again in June where they wanted Henry to reform the way the country was being run.[4]

Episode: The Second Barons' War  
 Apr 12  Henry is opposed by the Barons
 For many years, Henry had been living beyond the means of the country and with the failure of both harvests and Henry's will to amend his ways, a group of Barons rose up against him. Seven Barons first signed an oath and formed a commune in which they swore to look after each others interests. The seven were Richard de Clare (Earl of Gloucester), John Fitz Geoffrey, Roger Bigod (Earl of Norfolk), Hugh Bigod (Roger's brother), Peter of Savoy, Peter de Montfort (not a relation of Simon), and finally Simon de Montfort.[10]

Episode: The Second Barons' War  
 Jun  Provisions of Oxford
 The barons and Henry III met at Oxford where fully armed, the barons showed Henry that he had no choice but to reform the way the country was being run. A council of fifteen members was set to advise the king. The fifteen were selected by a committee of four, two from the barons and two from the king. The new council was not to last long as the members could not agree amongst themselves on courses of action and by 1260 it had broken up. The reformers and royalists were to take up arms and meet in civil war.[4]

Episode: The Second Barons' War  
 Jun  Odiham and Kenilworth handed over to the King
 As an act of faith, Simon de Montfort handed over his castles at Odiham and Kenilworth as part of the proposals put forward in the Provisions of Oxford.

Episode: The Second Barons' War  
1259 Dec 4  52yrsTreaty of Paris
 Also known as the treaty of Albeville/Abbeville. A treaty between Louis IX of France and Henry III in which Henry agreed to the loss of Normandy, Maine, Anjou and Poitou. These areas had been lost under the reign of King John. Henry was able to keep the lands of Gascony and parts of Aquitaine. This won Henry the support of Louis IX of France against the rebellious Barons back in England.

Episode: The Second Barons' War  
1261 Qtr 1  54yrsAbsolved from the Provisions of Oxford
 Pope Alexander IV agreed to absolve Henry from the Provisions of Oxford.[11]

Episode: The Second Barons' War  
 May  Henry back in control
 Having obtained a papal bull (a formal proclamation issued by the pope) to absolve himself from the Provision of Oxford, Henry hired an army of 300 French knights as bodyguards and took up position in the Tower of London. His objective was to regain the absolute power that the Barons had taken away.

Episode: The Second Barons' War  
 Aug 16  Henry appoints new ministers
 Henry had deposed ministers that had been appointed at the Provisions of Oxford and appointed new ones. His new proclamation gave the new ministers full power.[11]

Episode: The Second Barons' War  
1264   57yrsPevensey Castle siege
 Following the defeat at the Battle of Lewes, Henry III's supporters fled and took refuge in Pevensey Castle. Simon de Montfort's son, laid siege to the castle, but could not take it.

Episode: The Second Barons' War  
   Army at Barham Down
 At a camp near Canterbury, called Barham Down, the supporters of Simon de Montfort gather an army and hold it there to fend off a possible invasion from Henry III's supporters. 
 Jan 23  The Mise of Amiens
 Louis IX held a court at Amiens to decide if Henry should be freed from the obligations forced upon him by the Provisions of Oxford in 1258 by the Barons. Louis agreed that Henry should be freed and ruled against the Barons.

Episode: The Second Barons' War  
 Apr  Northampton captured by the King
 Henry and Edward captured the castle at Northampton where the sons of Simon de Montfort and their group of rebels were stationed. The sons (Henry and Simon the younger) were taken prisoner.[12] 
 May  Henry's war with the Barons
 The civil war between Henry III and the barons. The barons wanted to limit Henry's power and to sort out his finances which were a drain of the barons' resources. The cause was led by Simon de Montfort.

Episode: The Second Barons' War  
 May 14  Battle of Lewes
 Simon de Montfort surprises Henry III and Edward (I), with early movements of his troops on the hills above the castle. Henry and Richard of Cornwall defend the centre and left of the castle, but Edward attacks the lighter armed Londoners to the right and forcing them to flee, follows them off the battle site. When he returns, he finds that Henry is trapped in the priory and gives himself up in exchange for his father's release. After the battle Simon de Montfort marched on London but the drawbridge on London Bridge had been raised by the Lord Mayor. But Simon had the support of the Londoners who managed to lower the drawbridge allowing Simon into the city,[13]

Episode: The Second Barons' War  
 Jun  Simon summons Parliament
 From a provisional administration consisting of Simon himself, the Earl of Gloucester and the Bishop of Chichester, a council of 9 were chosen to advise the king. From these 9, 3 were to be with the king at all times.[4]

Episode: The Second Barons' War  
1265 Sep 16  58yrsPeace with the Barons
 After the defeat of Simon de Montfort at Evesham, a limited agreement of peace was declared between Henry and the barons. Some resistance remained at Kenilworth and the Isle of Ely until 1267.

Episode: The Second Barons' War  
1267   60yrsTreaty of Shrewsbury
 Agreement between Henry III and Llywelyn, Prince of Wales. Henry recognised Llywelyn's position as Prince of Wales in return for a regular payment. Also known as the Treaty of Montgomery. 
1269   62yrsEleanor of Provance and London Bridge
 Henry III granted to his wife Eleanor the revenues from the taxes and rent taken from London Bridge. Originally the money raised on the bridge were supposed to pay for repairs to the structure. With no money to spend on the upkeep of the bridge it began to fall into disrepair. This event may have been the source of the nursery rhyme 'London Bridge is falling down'. 
 Oct 13  Edward the Confessor moved
 Henry had Edward the Confessor's remains moved from behind the alter to a newly built golden shrine within Westminster Abbey.[7] 
 Oct 13  Westminster Abbey consecrated
 Sufficient parts of the abbey were completed for the monks to hold their first service in the new building. October 13 was chosen possibly to commemorate the moving of Edward the Confessor's body just over 100 hundred years earlier. Henry III died before he could witness the completion of the whole church. 
1270 Sep 14  63yrsRelic given to Hailes Abbey
 A phial containing the blood of Jesus was presented to abbey of Hailes by the son of Richard, Earl of Cornwall. The phial had been guaranteed by the Patriarch of Jerusalem and had been bought from the Count of Flanders in 1267. A section of the abbey was rebuilt to hold the relic, and it was held in a purpose built shrine. A similar relic had been presented to the King, Henry III several years before in 1247. 
1272 Nov 16  65yrsHenry III dies
 Henry was buried in the church of St. Peter's at Westminster (which he had rebuilt) in the former grave of Edward the Confessor whose remains Henry had moved to a golden shrine. 
1274 Aug 2  Edward arrives home
 Edward (I) landed at Dover to be crowned king. (Why did it take him so long to return home after the death of his father?) 

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