A large number of Vikings landed in East Anglia and gathered horses and supplies from the surrounding areas in preparation for their assault on Northumbria. Their leaders were Ivar the Boneless, son of Ragnar Lodbrok, and possibly Anlaf (Olaf) Cuaran, the King of Dublin.
The 'Great Army' moved north from their original landing site in East Anglia and into Northumbria where it split into two. One section took boats up the coast and sailed into the Humber while the other section went overland.
Armies from Northumbria attacked the Danes at York but were defeated. The Danes moved south attacking Nottingham and taking the city. The king of Mercia asked Ethelred and Alfred for assistance and an army from Wessex went to help.
Moving south again from York, The Danes entered East Anglia, attacking and destroying the many religious buildings in the area including the monastery at was what to become Peterborough. The King of East Anglia, Edmund raised an army to attack the Danes but was captured and killed.
Led by Halfdan the Danes moved north to attack the Picts and the area of Strathclyde. The Danes divided Northumbria taking York for themselves and creating the area known as Danelaw. A second Danish King called Guthrum took his army back south to Cambridge where he prepared plans to attack Wessex.
A Group of monks from St. Mary's in York Arrive at Ripon. They go on to found Fountains Abbey
Even though the Jews were under special protection from King Richard I, because of their wealth that could help pay for the Crusades, the mob attacked 150 Jews hiding in the castle at York. Most committed suicide rather than be attacked by the mob, but the rest believing promises that they would be spared if they came out left the castle and were promptly massacred.
Gaveston's return to England forced the Archbishop of Canterbury to honour his threat of excommunication and the Earls to prepare for civil war against the king. Edward and Gaveston travelled to Scotland to seek help from Robert the Bruce but were not welcome.
Edward was now back in control of the country and at the Parliament held at York the rebels who had fought against him were punished, many being executed for treason. The Ordinances against Edward were repealed and those who had supported Edward through the bad times were rewarded. The elder Hugh Despenser was made Earl of Winchester. The younger Despenser was given large amounts of land forfeited by the rebels.
During the absence of Edward III while he was on campaign in France the Scottish king David II was approached by the French King Philippe VI to invade England. David II did so and advanced south but at Neville's Cross they met a band of monks, priests and land workers who managed to defeat the Scottish army. The band were led by the archbishop of York William Zouche. David II was captured and sent to London to be held at the Tower.
After the Battle of Marston Moor the Royalists abandoned York and the Parliamentarians resumed the siege of the city. A couple of weeks after the battle the city surrendered and opened it's gates.
Selection of references used:
Explore the White Tower
Explore all four floors of the White Tower at the Tower of London using the Unity 3d game engine.
A Medieval Mystery
There appear to be some strange connections between the fourteenth century Old Wardour Castle and ancient stone circle Stonehenge.
Old Wardour Castle appears to be aligned to ancient sites in the Stonehenge landscape.
Stonehenge is aligned to the Summer Solstice. Old Wardour has a very similar alignment.
Could the builders of Old Wardour used mesaurements from Stonehenge to layout the geometrical keep?